The elections for the 10th Convocation of the Parliament of Georgia took place on 31 October and 21 November 2020, at the height of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Under an adjusted electoral system, the elections were won by the ruling Georgian Dream for the third consecutive time, a first in Georgian election history. The party received 48.2% of the proportional vote, winning 90 out of 150 seats after sweeping all 30 single-mandate constituencies. A total of nine parties got elected in parliament, a record since 1992. Despite the pandemic restrictions surrounding the elections, the 56.5% turnout was higher than in previous elections. The elections were not held in occupied Abkhazia and South Ossetia / Tskhinvali Region, in lack of Georgian control over the regions.
The elections were held through a mixed electoral system, with 120 of the 150 seats elected by proportional representation with a 1% threshold through a party-list vote, and 30 seats were elected by single-mandate majoritarian constituencies in which a 50% threshold had to be cleared for the winner. The constituencies varied in size between 44,000 and 155,000 voters, a return to an unequal electoral weight of the constituencies that was a persistent practice until 2016. A second round run-off was scheduled on 21 November 2020 in case no candidate cleared the 50% bar in the first round. The second round would be held between the two best performing candidates.
In addition to the change of the division of seats, a rule was applied that parties with less than 40% of the vote could not form a single-party government, even if it would win a parliamentary majority. The electoral system was altered prior to the elections after public pressure and international mediation. Originally the elections were to be held with 73 single-mandate constituencies and 77 seats to be elected by a proportional vote with a 5% threshold.
A total of 3,526,023 voters were registered, of which 14,170 voters were registered at an address abroad. A total of 66,217 Georgian citizens registered for voting abroad, but 52,047 of them had a valid address in Georgia and were thus marked in the unified voter list as “registered abroad”.
Parties and candidates
Initially, 66 parties and electoral blocs were registered at the Central Election Commission to participate in the elections, of which ultimately 55 parties participated in 48 electoral lists (two blocs of five and two parties had registered).1Civil Georgia, Polls Open in Georgia’s Parliamentary Elections, (31 Oct 2020), accessed December 2022. A total of 490 candidates took part in the 30 single-mandate races, among them were 120 women.2Civil Georgia, 490 MP Candidates to Run in 30 Majoritarian Constituencies, 29 Oct 2020. Georgian Dream had candidates in all constituencies, while opposition parties United National Movement, European Georgia, Lelo had candidates in most constituencies, and in a few instances had a joint candidate.
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) canceled the short-term election observation mission (STO) of 350 observers for 31 October.3Civil Georgia, 2020 Polls: OSCE/ODIHR Cancels Short Term Election Observation, 11 October 2020 The OSCE did deploy a team of 27 long term observers and 13 experts to Georgia to report on the campaign and compliance with procedures in the pre-election period.4OSCE, OSCE/ODIHR continues election observation in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine but in limited format, 9 October 2020 In addition, small delegations from NATO, the European Parliament and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe observed the elections. A total of 910 observers from 48 international organizations, as well as 46,981 observers from 132 local organizations were registered to monitor the elections.5CESKO, 31 October 2020 Parliamentary elections of Georgia – Final report (page7), February 2021 On top of that, 6,018 representatives from 118 media organizations were registered.
The OSCE mission together with the other international organizations documented “pervasive allegations of pressure on voters and blurring of the line between the ruling party and the state reduced public confidence in some aspects of the process”. It also noted intimidating situations were observed in and around several polling stations.6Civil Georgia, Int’l Observers Release Preliminary Conclusions, 1 November 2020 It did not see enough reason to disqualify the elections.7OSCE, Georgia, Parliamentary Elections, 31 October 2020: Final Report, 5 March 2021 The US Embassy declared the wide range of irregularities, intimidation, violence and ruling party influence over the election administration to be unacceptable: “efforts to corrupt the electoral process through voter intimidation, vote buying, interfering with ballot secrecy, blurring of party and official activities, and violence against election observers and journalists, while not sufficient to invalidate the results, continue to mar Georgia’s electoral process and are unacceptable”.8Civil Georgia, U.S. Embassy: Violations Unacceptable; Not Sufficient to Invalidate Results, 1 November 2020
On election night the exit polls from pro-government and opposition media showed divergent pictures of the election outcome, especially regarding the performance of the ruling Georgian Dream party. Exit polls from pro-government Imedi TV and Rustavi-2 claimed Georgian Dream was in the lead with respectively 55% and 52.3% of the vote. Opposition channels Mtavari Archi and Formula TV polled 41% and 46% for Georgian Dream. The leading opposition bloc ‘Strength is in Unity’ of United National Movement polled as second in all exit polls. Shortly after the release of the exit polls, Georgian Dream declared victory.9Civil Georgia, GD Declares Victory, Opposition Hopeful to Form Coalition Gov’t, 31 October 2020. The nationwide turnout was established at 56.5%, higher than the previous elections in 2016, with capital Tbilisi just below that at 54.4%. Per constituency the turnout varied between 45.9 and 64.5%, with the highest turnout in the western part of the country. There were a total of 12,247 votes abroad, of which 44.9% was for UNM and 28.6% for the ruling Georgian Dream.
Georgian Dream won 13 constituencies in the first round, which were mostly in the western and southern part of the country. In 17 constituencies a second round was required, including in all eight districts of capital Tbilisi, the main cities Batumi, Kutaisi and Rustavi and traditional UNM stronghold Zugdidi. The Tbilisi-Gldani district (#8) was the only constituency where an opposition candidate finished first, beating the Georgian Dream candidate. Here, Nika Melia of United National Movement received 44.1% of the vote, while Georgian Dream candidate Levan Kobiashvili got 42.5%. In all other constituencies Georgian Dream was in the lead.
The exit polls fueled public and political discourse in the days following the elections. The United National Movement-led opposition refused to admit defeat, claiming it had received enough votes to form a coalition government and accused the authorities of fraud. The opposition called the results “illegitimate” and called for protests in front of Parliament throughout the following days.10Civil Georgia, Opposition Says Results ‘Illegitimate,’ Announces Street Protests, 9 November 2020. In the night of 8-9 November 2020, the anti-riot police was deployed as protesters attempted to enter the Central Election Commission office.11Civil Georgia, 19 Detained As Police Used Water Cannons Against Election Rally in Tbilisi, 9 November 2020. Leading civil society organizations and watchdogs called the elections the “least democratic and free under Georgian Dream rule” (in other words, since 2012), despite the more proportional system.12Civil Georgia, CSOs: 2020 Elections “Least Democratic, Free” Under GD, 4 November 2020.
Opposition candidates boycotted the second round runoff in 17 single-mandate constituencies on 21 November. Formally they could not be taken off the ballot, they simply refused to campaign and called voters to boycot the second round. As result, the turnout was very low at 26.3%, and all 17 constituencies were won by Georgian Dream candidates with overwhelming numbers (most opposition voters indeed stayed home).13Civil Georgia, Georgia Votes in Runoffs on Saturday Amid Opposition Boycott (20 Nov 2020), accessed December 2022.14Civil Georgia, All Votes Tallied: GD Wins All 17 Runoffs Amid Opposition Boycott (22 Nov 2020), accessed December 2022. Subsequently, nearly all elected MPs of the opposition refused to take their mandate, triggering a prolonged political crisis that led to EU and US mediation. The table below shows the official results released by the Central Election Commission (CESKO) (full table in Appendix 1).
|UNM – Strength is in Unity (bloc)||523,127||27.18||36||0||36||+9|
|European Georgia — Movement for Liberty||72,986||3,79||5||0||5||+5|
|Strategy Aghmashenebeli (bloc)||60,671||3.15||4||0||4||+4|
|Alliance of Georgian Patriots||60,480||3.14||4||0||4||-2|
|Georgian Labour Party||19,314||1,00||1||0||1||+1|
|Democratic Movement – United Georgia||16,286||0.85||0||0||0||0|
|Other parties and blocs1539 other parties on the ballot received a total of 101,763 votes (or 5.3%)||101,709||5.3||0||0||0||0|
|Total||1,924,44916CESKO reported a total of 1,924,395 votes. The actual sum of the full list released by CESKO is 1,924,449, a gap of 54 votes.||96.57||120||30||150|
|Total cast votes||1,992,891||100.00|
|Registered voters and turnout||3,526,02317Composed of 3,511,853 voters at a Georgian address, taking part in the single-mandate elections, and 14,170 at a foreign address (CESKO final election report, OSCE final report)||56,5|
|Sources: CESKO,18Dashboard 1st round19Dashboard 2nd round Final summary and elected MPs.20Summary Protocol On the Final Results of the 31 October 2020 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia (pdf)|
After the second round for the single-mandate runoffs, the opposition parties continued their refusal to recognize the election results, boycotted parliament, called for new elections and demanded the release of “political prisoners”.21Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream, Opposition Hold 4th Round of Talks, 9 December 2020 The ambassadors of the United States and the European Union facilitated several rounds of talks in the post-election period between Georgian Dream and the opposition.
On 11 December 2020 the new parliament was inaugurated by president Salome Zurabishvili, with the entire opposition being absent. According to the constitution only a simple majority is needed for the opening of a newly elected parliament, but full legislative power is only granted when more than two-thirds of parliament (100 MPs) takes their seats and recognizes their mandate.22Article 38, Constitution of Georgia This was not the case with 88 of 150 MPs present, all Georgian Dream.23Civil Georgia, Georgian Parliament Opens Amid Opposition Boycott, 11 December 2020 Two remaining MPs of Georgian Dream were in self-isolation due to a COVID-19 infection.
On the day of the inauguration of Parliament five opposition parties (main opposition bloc ‘Strength is in Unity’ led by UNM, European Georgia, Lelo, Strategy Agmashenebeli and Labour) submitted a request to annul their proportional party-lists. This would mean that in the case a mandate of an MP is terminated, no successor from the party-list can be appointed, leaving the seat vacant for the remainder of the term. The five parties had a total of 50 MPs elected. The Central Election Commission agreed to the request four days later.24Agenda.ge, Election Commission annuls party lists of five opposition parties per their request, 15 December 2020 Throughout 2021 and 2022 various mandates were terminated, either by free will or forced by the ruling party and as of January 2023 eight seats were permanently vacant for the remainder of the 10th convocation (until Fall 2024). In Georgia parliament has to agree in majority to the formal termination of a mandate (which would only then open the road to replacement through the party-list or a district by-election).
The ruling Georgian Dream subsequently proposed scrapping state subsidies for boycotting parties, limiting their political broadcasting time on public tv and radio and deregistering the largest opposition party United National Movement as a political party. This only deepened and intensified the political crisis and led to international condemnation (see also my op-ed at Civil Georgia). Civil society organizations and watchdogs expressed their concern stating that “authorities do not properly comprehend their own responsibility in the process of solving the existing crises”.25Civil Georgia, CSOs Decry GD-Initiated ‘Sanctions’ on Opposition Parties, 17 December 2020 The US Ambassador to Georgia, Kelly Degnan, criticized any suppression of the opposition and expressed that Georgian democracy after thirty years “now needs the development of a flourishing opposition, as well as a responsible and effective ruling party. She also noted that a “prolonged one party parliament for Georgia would be a really disappointing setback” after voters elected nine parties in parliament “expecting diverse representation in their parliament”.26Civil Georgia, U.S. Ambassador Hopes GD to Reconsider Bill Restricting Opposition, 23 December 2020
In absence of the opposition parliament approved the continuation of the cabinet led by incumbent Prime Minister Giorgi Gakharia on 24 December 2020.27Civil Georgia, Parliament Confirms New Old Gakharia Cabinet, 24 December 2020 Just after New Year, the nativist and pro-Russian Alliance of Georgian Patriots was the first party to abandon the boycott. Three of the four elected MPs had their mandates canceled by parliament, resulting in three lower-ranking candidates from the party-list taking seats in parliament. Within a few days the four Patriots MPs announced they would continue as European Socialists.28Civil Georgia, Four Opposition MPs Quit Alliance of Patriots Party, Enter Parliament, 5 January 2021 At the end of January, the two MPs from Citizens ended their boycott and accepted their mandate after making a deal with Georgian Droom about supporting electoral reforms.29Civil Georgia, Two Citizens’ MPs Strike Deal with GD, Enter Parliament, 29 January 2021
Arrest Nika Melia
In mid-February a new escalation of the political crisis ensued when the ruling party announced that it would lift the parliamentary immunity of Nika Melia, leader of the United National Movement.30Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream MPs to Strip UNM’s Melia of Parliamentary Immunity, 13 February 2021 This was supposed to pave the way for his arrest on the basis of a court order,31Civil Georgia, Prosecutor Asks Parliament to OK UNM Chair’s Imprisonment, 12 February 2021 issued after Melia refused to pay an additional GEL 40,000 bail imposed on him after he had publicly removed a monitoring bracelet during an opposition rally in November. The monitoring bracelet was part of the court case against him as result of protests in June 2019. Five days after parliament revoked Melia’s immunity Prime Minister Gakharia resigned as he refused to cooperate with the arrest of Melia.32Civil Georgia, PM Giorgi Gakharia Resigns over Melia’s Detention, 18 February 202133BBC, Georgia PM Giorgi Gakharia quits over order to detain opposition leader, 18 February 2021 Gakharia said he could not reach “a common understanding on this matter” with his team, adding that he considers Melia responsible for the storming of parliament in June 2019 but that “the decision to detain him poses unacceptable risks, and unduly complicates the task of economic recovery and the management of pandemic”.
Gakharia was succeeded by Irakli Garibashvili, who had been Prime Minister between 2013 and 2015 and had a trackrecord uncompromising leader.34Civil Georgia, Garibashvili: Not a Man of Compromise, 19 February 2021 A Lithuanian MP, who warned of sanctions if Melia would get arrested, was quickly confronted by Garibashvili’s uncompromising approach.35Civil Georgia, Garibashvili: Lithuanian MP Statements ‘Mean Absolutely Nothing’ for Georgian Dream, 22 February 2021 During his confirmation hearing Garibashvili vowed to “establish order in the country and return a number of destructive forces to the constitutional order and framework”. Melia was arrested just a few hours after parliament gave blessing to Garibashvili as prime minister and his cabinet.36Civil Georgia, Police Storm UNM Office, Detain Nika Melia, 23 February 2021 This development spurred a more direct involvement of the European Union into the crisis.
European Commissioner for Neighborhood and Enlargement, the Hungarian Olivér Várhelyi, stated that Prime Minister Garibashvili “has [an] important responsibility to reduce tensions [and] for all to engage in dialogue”, adding that “all sides need to show restraint [and] responsibility, in [the] best interest of Georgian people”.37Civil Georgia, PM Garibashvili Responsible for Reducing Tensions, EU Commissioner Says, 24 February 2021 The US Department of State also spoke out in similar terms, calling on the government to “act in line with its Euro-Atlantic aspirations and to reinforce its commitment to the principles of democracy, individual liberty, and rule of law by ensuring that its judicial and prosecutorial system is free of political bias”.38Civil Georgia, U.S. ‘Deeply Troubled’ By Melia’s Detention, 23 February 2021 On March 1, EU President Charles Michel traveled to Tbilisi and held a joint meeting with ruling and opposition parties in an attempt to break the political deadlock.39Civil Georgia, EU Mediation: PM Garibashvili, Opposition Agree to Continue Dialogue, 1 March 2021
The opposition made a concession by dropping the demand for early elections in exchange for a plebiscite on early elections.40Civil Georgia, Opposition Talks Plebiscite On Snap Elections, EU Mediation after Meeting President Michel, 1 March 2021 Electoral reforms the upcoming municipal elections in autumn 2021, reforms in the judiciary, and the sharing of power in parliament were discussed.41Civil Georgia, Reports: Six Points Discussed During EU Mediated Talks, 3 March 2021 It became the basis for a six-point plan drawn up by the EU. The Swede Christian Danielsson spent a week negotiating in Tbilisi as special envoy on behalf of Charles Michel and the EU without achieving results.42Civil Georgia, EU Mediation: No Deal Reached Yet; Danielsson to Leave for Brussels, 19 March 2021 Upon his return to Tbilisi at the end of March he was unable to get the two sides any closer.43Civil Georgia, EU’s Georgia Mediation Fails Again, 31 March 2021
EU President Charles Michel came with a new proposal on April 18, titled ‘A way forward for Georgia’. The agreement included clauses on power sharing, reforms in the fields of rule of law and democracy. It also contained a clause on early parliamentary elections if Georgian Dream would fail to win more than 43% of the vote in the autumn 2021 local elections.44EU Neighbours East, ‘A way ahead for Georgia’. Proposal by President of the European Council Charles Michel to the representatives of Georgian political parties, 23 April 2021 The agreement was finally accepted and signed a day later by Georgian Dream and part of the opposition. The 36-members strong opposition bloc ‘Strength is in Unity – UNM’ remained the main force against the agreement, with only two MPs signing (Khatuna Samnidze, leader of the Republicans, and Salome Samadashvili of UNM). All MPs of Girchi, Lelo and Citizens signed the agreement, while European Georgia and Strategy Agmashenebeli were divided over the issue. The sole Labour MP, Shalva Natelashvili, and all four MPs of European Socialists (ex-Patriots) refused to sign. In total 112 out of 150 MPs, just one short of a two-third constitutional majority, signed the agreement.45Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream, Opposition, Except for UNM, EG, Sign EU Proposal, 19 April 2021
Meanwhile, six MPs had left the Georgian Dream party in mid-April 2021 to form a new party led by former Prime Minister Gakharia.46Civil Georgia, Six Georgian Dream MPs Quit to Join Gakharia’s Forthcoming Party, 14 April 2021 The party ‘For Georgia’ was initiated in May 2021 and eventually became third in the local elections of October 2021.47Civil Georgia, Former PM Gakharia Inaugurates New Political Party, 29 May 2021 The bipartisan EU-mediated agreement however was not to last. On 28 July 2021 Georgian Dream canceled the agreement, citing the continued refusal of part of the opposition, mainly their arch-rival UNM, to participate in the deal.48Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream Quits EU-brokered Deal, 28 July 2021 Party leader Kobakhidze also lashed out at international partners: “we can see our international partners do not find it necessary to strictly demand from the radical opposition to sign and participate in implementing the document. One-sided loyalty to the April 19 agreement is insulting for our party, and our voters will not forgive us this”. Georgian Dream declared itself not bound by the 43% clause for the upcoming local elections. In September the United National Movement signed the agreement, but to no avail.49Civil Georgia, In Quotes: Political Reactions to UNM Joining EU-Brokered Deal, 2 September 2021 Georgian Dream won the local elections with more than 43% of the total vote, which settled the discussion about early parliamentary elections and effectively ended the political deadlock after a year.
Composition of Parliament
The composition of parliament changed since the elections took place. By 2022 Georgian Dream lost its majority of 90 seats to a “hung” 75 seats due to various splits. In April 2021 six MPs left the party to join former prime minister Giorgi Gakharia in his newly established ‘For Georgia’ party, which would take part in the local elections of fall 2021 in opposition to Georgian Dream. In June and July 2022 four Georgian Dream MPs left the party to form the anti-western ‘Peoples Power’ movement and faction,50Civil Georgia, Dissident GD Members Announce New Public Movement, 28 July 2022 to be followed in October 2022 by five more MPs who joined the former four.51Civil Georgia, Five More MPs Join Ruling Majority’s Anti-Western Flank, 4 October 2022 Peoples Power supports the government, but For Georgia does not. Peoples Power was formed to tell the “true story” about western pressure on Georgia in relation to Russia’s war against Ukraine, accusing western governments of attempting to drag Georgia as second front into that war. The party is considered to be an anti-western front for Georgian Dream, and it has explicitly stated it does not want to burden the government with their messages.
1. Participating parties and electoral blocs
2. Elected members of Parliament
3. Single-mandate constituencies
References and footnotes
- 1Civil Georgia, Polls Open in Georgia’s Parliamentary Elections, (31 Oct 2020), accessed December 2022.
- 2Civil Georgia, 490 MP Candidates to Run in 30 Majoritarian Constituencies, 29 Oct 2020.
- 3Civil Georgia, 2020 Polls: OSCE/ODIHR Cancels Short Term Election Observation, 11 October 2020
- 5CESKO, 31 October 2020 Parliamentary elections of Georgia – Final report (page7), February 2021
- 6Civil Georgia, Int’l Observers Release Preliminary Conclusions, 1 November 2020
- 7OSCE, Georgia, Parliamentary Elections, 31 October 2020: Final Report, 5 March 2021
- 8Civil Georgia, U.S. Embassy: Violations Unacceptable; Not Sufficient to Invalidate Results, 1 November 2020
- 9Civil Georgia, GD Declares Victory, Opposition Hopeful to Form Coalition Gov’t, 31 October 2020.
- 10Civil Georgia, Opposition Says Results ‘Illegitimate,’ Announces Street Protests, 9 November 2020.
- 11Civil Georgia, 19 Detained As Police Used Water Cannons Against Election Rally in Tbilisi, 9 November 2020.
- 12Civil Georgia, CSOs: 2020 Elections “Least Democratic, Free” Under GD, 4 November 2020.
- 13Civil Georgia, Georgia Votes in Runoffs on Saturday Amid Opposition Boycott (20 Nov 2020), accessed December 2022.
- 14Civil Georgia, All Votes Tallied: GD Wins All 17 Runoffs Amid Opposition Boycott (22 Nov 2020), accessed December 2022.
- 1539 other parties on the ballot received a total of 101,763 votes (or 5.3%)
- 16CESKO reported a total of 1,924,395 votes. The actual sum of the full list released by CESKO is 1,924,449, a gap of 54 votes.
- 17Composed of 3,511,853 voters at a Georgian address, taking part in the single-mandate elections, and 14,170 at a foreign address (CESKO final election report, OSCE final report)
- 21Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream, Opposition Hold 4th Round of Talks, 9 December 2020
- 22Article 38, Constitution of Georgia
- 23Civil Georgia, Georgian Parliament Opens Amid Opposition Boycott, 11 December 2020
- 24Agenda.ge, Election Commission annuls party lists of five opposition parties per their request, 15 December 2020
- 25Civil Georgia, CSOs Decry GD-Initiated ‘Sanctions’ on Opposition Parties, 17 December 2020
- 26Civil Georgia, U.S. Ambassador Hopes GD to Reconsider Bill Restricting Opposition, 23 December 2020
- 27Civil Georgia, Parliament Confirms New Old Gakharia Cabinet, 24 December 2020
- 28Civil Georgia, Four Opposition MPs Quit Alliance of Patriots Party, Enter Parliament, 5 January 2021
- 29Civil Georgia, Two Citizens’ MPs Strike Deal with GD, Enter Parliament, 29 January 2021
- 30Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream MPs to Strip UNM’s Melia of Parliamentary Immunity, 13 February 2021
- 31Civil Georgia, Prosecutor Asks Parliament to OK UNM Chair’s Imprisonment, 12 February 2021
- 32Civil Georgia, PM Giorgi Gakharia Resigns over Melia’s Detention, 18 February 2021
- 33BBC, Georgia PM Giorgi Gakharia quits over order to detain opposition leader, 18 February 2021
- 34Civil Georgia, Garibashvili: Not a Man of Compromise, 19 February 2021
- 35Civil Georgia, Garibashvili: Lithuanian MP Statements ‘Mean Absolutely Nothing’ for Georgian Dream, 22 February 2021
- 36Civil Georgia, Police Storm UNM Office, Detain Nika Melia, 23 February 2021
- 37Civil Georgia, PM Garibashvili Responsible for Reducing Tensions, EU Commissioner Says, 24 February 2021
- 38Civil Georgia, U.S. ‘Deeply Troubled’ By Melia’s Detention, 23 February 2021
- 39Civil Georgia, EU Mediation: PM Garibashvili, Opposition Agree to Continue Dialogue, 1 March 2021
- 40Civil Georgia, Opposition Talks Plebiscite On Snap Elections, EU Mediation after Meeting President Michel, 1 March 2021
- 41Civil Georgia, Reports: Six Points Discussed During EU Mediated Talks, 3 March 2021
- 42Civil Georgia, EU Mediation: No Deal Reached Yet; Danielsson to Leave for Brussels, 19 March 2021
- 43Civil Georgia, EU’s Georgia Mediation Fails Again, 31 March 2021
- 44EU Neighbours East, ‘A way ahead for Georgia’. Proposal by President of the European Council Charles Michel to the representatives of Georgian political parties, 23 April 2021
- 45Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream, Opposition, Except for UNM, EG, Sign EU Proposal, 19 April 2021
- 46Civil Georgia, Six Georgian Dream MPs Quit to Join Gakharia’s Forthcoming Party, 14 April 2021
- 47Civil Georgia, Former PM Gakharia Inaugurates New Political Party, 29 May 2021
- 48Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream Quits EU-brokered Deal, 28 July 2021
- 49Civil Georgia, In Quotes: Political Reactions to UNM Joining EU-Brokered Deal, 2 September 2021
- 50Civil Georgia, Dissident GD Members Announce New Public Movement, 28 July 2022
- 51Civil Georgia, Five More MPs Join Ruling Majority’s Anti-Western Flank, 4 October 2022