2020 Elections Parliament of Georgia

The elections for the 10th Convocation of the Parliament of Georgia took place on 31 October and 21 November 2020, at the height of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Under an adjusted electoral system, the elections were won by the ruling Georgian Dream for the third consecutive time, a first in Georgian election history. The party received 48.2% of the proportional vote, winning 90 out of 150 seats after sweeping all 30 single-mandate constituencies. A total of nine parties got elected in parliament, a record since 1992. Despite the pandemic restrictions surrounding the elections, the 56.5% turnout was higher than in previous elections. The elections were not held in occupied Abkhazia and South Ossetia / Tskhinvali Region, in lack of Georgian control over the regions.

 

Electoral system

The elections were held through a mixed electoral system, with 120 of the 150 seats elected by proportional representation with a 1% threshold through a party-list vote, and 30 seats were elected by single-mandate majoritarian constituencies in which a 50% threshold had to be cleared for the winner. The constituencies varied in size between 44,000 and 155,000 voters, a return to an unequal electoral weight of the constituencies that was a persistent practice until 2016. A second round run-off was scheduled on 21 November 2020 in case no candidate cleared the 50% bar in the first round. The second round would be held between the two best performing candidates.

In addition to the change of the division of seats, a rule was applied that parties with less than 40% of the vote could not form a single-party government, even if it would win a parliamentary majority. The electoral system was altered prior to the elections after public pressure and international mediation. Originally the elections were to be held with 73 single-mandate constituencies and 77 seats to be elected by a proportional vote with a 5% threshold.

A total of 3,526,023 voters were registered, of which 14,170 voters were registered at an address abroad. A total of 66,217 Georgian citizens registered for voting abroad, but 52,047 of them had a valid address in Georgia and were thus marked in the unified voter list as “registered abroad”.

Single-mandate constituencies 2020 elections Georgia - registered voters
Registered voters per single mandate constituency

Parties and candidates

Initially, 66 parties and electoral blocs were registered at the Central Election Commission to participate in the elections, of which ultimately 55 parties participated in 48 electoral lists (two blocs of five and two parties had registered).1Civil Georgia, Polls Open in Georgia’s Parliamentary Elections, (31 Oct 2020), accessed December 2022. A total of 490 candidates took part in the 30 single-mandate races, among them were 120 women.2Civil Georgia, 490 MP Candidates to Run in 30 Majoritarian Constituencies, 29 Oct 2020. Georgian Dream had candidates in all constituencies, while opposition parties United National Movement, European Georgia, Lelo had candidates in most constituencies, and in a few instances had a joint candidate.

Election observation

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) canceled the short-term election observation mission (STO) of 350 observers for 31 October.3Civil Georgia, 2020 Polls: OSCE/ODIHR Cancels Short Term Election Observation, 11 October 2020 The OSCE did deploy a team of 27 long term observers and 13 experts to Georgia to report on the campaign and compliance with procedures in the pre-election period.4OSCE, OSCE/ODIHR continues election observation in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine but in limited format, 9 October 2020 In addition, small delegations from NATO, the European Parliament and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe observed the elections. A total of 910 observers from 48 international organizations, as well as 46,981 observers from 132 local organizations were registered to monitor the elections.5CESKO, 31 October 2020 Parliamentary elections of Georgia – Final report (page7), February 2021 On top of that, 6,018 representatives from 118 media organizations were registered.

The OSCE mission together with the other international organizations documented “pervasive allegations of pressure on voters and blurring of the line between the ruling party and the state reduced public confidence in some aspects of the process”. It also noted intimidating situations were observed in and around several polling stations.6Civil Georgia, Int’l Observers Release Preliminary Conclusions, 1 November 2020 It did not see enough reason to disqualify the elections.7OSCE, Georgia, Parliamentary Elections, 31 October 2020: Final Report, 5 March 2021 The US Embassy declared the wide range of irregularities, intimidation, violence and ruling party influence over the election administration to be unacceptable: “efforts to corrupt the electoral process through voter intimidation, vote buying, interfering with ballot secrecy, blurring of party and official activities, and violence against election observers and journalists, while not sufficient to invalidate the results, continue to mar Georgia’s electoral process and are unacceptable”.8Civil Georgia, U.S. Embassy: Violations Unacceptable; Not Sufficient to Invalidate Results, 1 November 2020

Results

On election night the exit polls from pro-government and opposition media showed divergent pictures of the election outcome, especially regarding the performance of the ruling Georgian Dream party. Exit polls from pro-government Imedi TV and Rustavi-2 claimed Georgian Dream was in the lead with respectively 55% and 52.3% of the vote. Opposition channels Mtavari Archi and Formula TV polled 41% and 46% for Georgian Dream. The leading opposition bloc ‘Strength is in Unity’ of United National Movement polled as second in all exit polls. Shortly after the release of the exit polls, Georgian Dream declared victory.9Civil Georgia, GD Declares Victory, Opposition Hopeful to Form Coalition Gov’t, 31 October 2020. The nationwide turnout was established at 56.5%, higher than the previous elections in 2016, with capital Tbilisi just below that at 54.4%. Per constituency the turnout varied between 45.9 and 64.5%, with the highest turnout in the western part of the country. There were a total of 12,247 votes abroad, of which 44.9% was for UNM and 28.6% for the ruling Georgian Dream.

Turnout per constituency (illustration Jelger Groeneveld)
Turnout per constituency (illustration Jelger Groeneveld)

Georgian Dream won 13 constituencies in the first round, which were mostly in the western and southern part of the country. In 17 constituencies a second round was required, including in all eight districts of capital Tbilisi, the main cities Batumi, Kutaisi and Rustavi and traditional UNM stronghold Zugdidi. The Tbilisi-Gldani district (#8) was the only constituency where an opposition candidate finished first, beating the Georgian Dream candidate. Here, Nika Melia of United National Movement received 44.1% of the vote, while Georgian Dream candidate Levan Kobiashvili got 42.5%. In all other constituencies Georgian Dream was in the lead.

Run-off constituencies with opposition colors (against Georgian Dream candidates)
Run-off constituencies with opposition colors against Georgian Dream (illustration Jelger Groeneveld)

The exit polls fueled public and political discourse in the days following the elections. The United National Movement-led opposition refused to admit defeat, claiming it had received enough votes to form a coalition government and accused the authorities of fraud. The opposition called the results “illegitimate” and called for protests in front of Parliament throughout the following days.10Civil Georgia, Opposition Says Results ‘Illegitimate,’ Announces Street Protests, 9 November 2020. In the night of 8-9 November 2020, the anti-riot police was deployed as protesters attempted to enter the Central Election Commission office.11Civil Georgia, 19 Detained As Police Used Water Cannons Against Election Rally in Tbilisi, 9 November 2020. Leading civil society organizations and watchdogs called the elections the “least democratic and free under Georgian Dream rule” (in other words, since 2012), despite the more proportional system.12Civil Georgia, CSOs: 2020 Elections “Least Democratic, Free” Under GD, 4 November 2020.

Opposition protests after the elections (photo: Jelger Groeneveld)
Opposition protests after the elections (photo: Jelger Groeneveld).

Opposition candidates boycotted the second round runoff in 17 single-mandate constituencies on 21 November. Formally they could not be taken off the ballot, they simply refused to campaign and called voters to boycot the second round. As result, the turnout was very low at 26.3%, and all 17 constituencies were won by Georgian Dream candidates with overwhelming numbers (most opposition voters indeed stayed home).13Civil Georgia, Georgia Votes in Runoffs on Saturday Amid Opposition Boycott (20 Nov 2020), accessed December 2022.14Civil Georgia, All Votes Tallied: GD Wins All 17 Runoffs Amid Opposition Boycott (22 Nov 2020), accessed December 2022. Subsequently, nearly all elected MPs of the opposition refused to take their mandate, triggering a prolonged political crisis that led to EU and US mediation. The table below shows the official results released by the Central Election Commission (CESKO) (full table in Appendix 1).

Party Partylist Vote Seats
Votes % Prop. District Total +/-
Georgian Dream 928,004 48.22 60 30 90 -25
UNM – Strength is in Unity (bloc) 523,127 27.18 36 0 36 +9
European Georgia — Movement for Liberty 72,986 3,79 5 0 5 +5
Lelo 60,712 3.15 4 0 4 +4
Strategy Aghmashenebeli (bloc) 60,671 3.15 4 0 4 +4
Alliance of Georgian Patriots 60,480 3.14 4 0 4 -2
Girchi 55,598 2,89 4 0 4 +4
Citizens 25,508 1,33 2 0 2 +2
Georgian Labour Party 19,314 1,00 1 0 1 +1
Democratic Movement – United Georgia 16,286 0.85 0 0 0 0
Other parties and blocs1539 other parties on the ballot received a total of 101,763 votes (or 5.3%) 101,709 5.3 0 0 0 0
Total 1,924,44916CESKO reported a total of 1,924,395 votes. The actual sum of the full list released by CESKO is 1,924,449, a gap of 54 votes. 96.57 120 30 150  
Invalid votes 65,434 3.28  
Missing ballots 3,008 0.15
Total cast votes 1,992,891 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 3,526,02317Composed of 3,511,853 voters at a Georgian address, taking part in the single-mandate elections, and 14,170 at a foreign address (CESKO final election report, OSCE final report) 56,5
Sources: CESKO,18Dashboard 1st round19Dashboard 2nd round Final summary and elected MPs.20Summary Protocol On the Final Results of the 31 October 2020 Parliamentary Elections of Georgia (pdf)

 

Aftermath

After the second round for the single-mandate runoffs, the opposition parties continued their refusal to recognize the election results, boycotted parliament, called for new elections and demanded the release of “political prisoners”.21Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream, Opposition Hold 4th Round of Talks, 9 December 2020 The ambassadors of the United States and the European Union facilitated several rounds of talks in the post-election period between Georgian Dream and the opposition. 

Inauguration

On 11 December 2020 the new parliament was inaugurated by president Salome Zurabishvili, with the entire opposition being absent. According to the constitution only a simple majority is needed for the opening of a newly elected parliament, but full legislative power is only granted when more than two-thirds of parliament (100 MPs) takes their seats and recognizes their mandate.22Article 38, Constitution of Georgia This was not the case with 88 of 150 MPs present, all Georgian Dream.23Civil Georgia, Georgian Parliament Opens Amid Opposition Boycott, 11 December 2020 Two remaining MPs of Georgian Dream were in self-isolation due to a COVID-19 infection. 

On the day of the inauguration of Parliament five opposition parties (main opposition bloc ‘Strength is in Unity’ led by UNM, European Georgia, Lelo, Strategy Agmashenebeli and Labour) submitted a request to annul their proportional party-lists. This would mean that in the case a mandate of an MP is terminated, no successor from the party-list can be appointed, leaving the seat vacant for the remainder of the term. The five parties had a total of 50 MPs elected. The Central Election Commission agreed to the request four days later.24Agenda.ge, Election Commission annuls party lists of five opposition parties per their request, 15 December 2020 Throughout 2021 and 2022 various mandates were terminated, either by free will or forced by the ruling party and as of January 2023 eight seats were permanently vacant for the remainder of the 10th convocation (until Fall 2024). In Georgia parliament has to agree in majority to the formal termination of a mandate (which would only then open the road to replacement through the party-list or a district by-election).

Anti-opposition measures

The ruling Georgian Dream subsequently proposed scrapping state subsidies for boycotting parties, limiting their political broadcasting time on public tv and radio and deregistering the largest opposition party United National Movement as a political party. This only deepened and intensified the political crisis and led to international condemnation (see also my op-ed at Civil Georgia). Civil society organizations and watchdogs expressed their concern stating that “authorities do not properly comprehend their own responsibility in the process of solving the existing crises”.25Civil Georgia, CSOs Decry GD-Initiated ‘Sanctions’ on Opposition Parties, 17 December 2020 The US Ambassador to Georgia, Kelly Degnan, criticized any suppression of the opposition and expressed that Georgian democracy after thirty years “now needs the development of a flourishing opposition, as well as a responsible and effective ruling party. She also noted that a “prolonged one party parliament for Georgia would be a really disappointing setback” after voters elected nine parties in parliament “expecting diverse representation in their parliament”.26Civil Georgia, U.S. Ambassador Hopes GD to Reconsider Bill Restricting Opposition, 23 December 2020

In absence of the opposition parliament approved the continuation of the cabinet led by incumbent Prime Minister Giorgi Gakharia on 24 December 2020.27Civil Georgia, Parliament Confirms New Old Gakharia Cabinet, 24 December 2020 Just after New Year, the nativist and pro-Russian Alliance of Georgian Patriots was the first party to abandon the boycott. Three of the four elected MPs had their mandates canceled by parliament, resulting in three lower-ranking candidates from the party-list taking seats in parliament. Within a few days the four Patriots MPs announced they would continue as European Socialists.28Civil Georgia, Four Opposition MPs Quit Alliance of Patriots Party, Enter Parliament, 5 January 2021 At the end of January, the two MPs from Citizens ended their boycott and accepted their mandate after making a deal with Georgian Droom about supporting electoral reforms.29Civil Georgia, Two Citizens’ MPs Strike Deal with GD, Enter Parliament, 29 January 2021

Arrest Nika Melia

In mid-February a new escalation of the political crisis ensued when the ruling party announced that it would lift the parliamentary immunity of Nika Melia, leader of the United National Movement.30Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream MPs to Strip UNM’s Melia of Parliamentary Immunity, 13 February 2021 This was supposed to pave the way for his arrest on the basis of a court order,31Civil Georgia, Prosecutor Asks Parliament to OK UNM Chair’s Imprisonment, 12 February 2021 issued after Melia refused to pay an additional GEL 40,000 bail imposed on him after he had publicly removed a monitoring bracelet during an opposition rally in November. The monitoring bracelet was part of the court case against him as result of protests in June 2019. Five days after parliament revoked Melia’s immunity Prime Minister Gakharia resigned as he refused to cooperate with the arrest of Melia.32Civil Georgia, PM Giorgi Gakharia Resigns over Melia’s Detention, 18 February 202133BBC, Georgia PM Giorgi Gakharia quits over order to detain opposition leader, 18 February 2021 Gakharia said he could not reach “a common understanding on this matter” with his team, adding that he considers Melia responsible for the storming of parliament in June 2019 but that “the decision to detain him poses unacceptable risks, and unduly complicates the task of economic recovery and the management of pandemic”.

Gakharia was succeeded by Irakli Garibashvili, who had been Prime Minister between 2013 and 2015 and had a trackrecord uncompromising leader.34Civil Georgia, Garibashvili: Not a Man of Compromise, 19 February 2021 A Lithuanian MP, who warned of sanctions if Melia would get arrested, was quickly confronted by Garibashvili’s uncompromising approach.35Civil Georgia, Garibashvili: Lithuanian MP Statements ‘Mean Absolutely Nothing’ for Georgian Dream, 22 February 2021 During his confirmation hearing Garibashvili vowed to “establish order in the country and return a number of destructive forces to the constitutional order and framework”. Melia was arrested just a few hours after parliament gave blessing to Garibashvili as prime minister and his cabinet.36Civil Georgia, Police Storm UNM Office, Detain Nika Melia, 23 February 2021 This development spurred a more direct involvement of the European Union into the crisis. 

EU involvement

European Commissioner for Neighborhood and Enlargement, the Hungarian Olivér Várhelyi, stated that Prime Minister Garibashvili “has [an] important responsibility to reduce tensions [and] for all to engage in dialogue”, adding that “all sides need to show restraint [and] responsibility, in [the] best interest of Georgian people”.37Civil Georgia, PM Garibashvili Responsible for Reducing Tensions, EU Commissioner Says, 24 February 2021 The US Department of State also spoke out in similar terms, calling on the government to “act in line with its Euro-Atlantic aspirations and to reinforce its commitment to the principles of democracy, individual liberty, and rule of law by ensuring that its judicial and prosecutorial system is free of political bias”.38Civil Georgia, U.S. ‘Deeply Troubled’ By Melia’s Detention, 23 February 2021 On March 1, EU President Charles Michel traveled to Tbilisi and held a joint meeting with ruling and opposition parties in an attempt to break the political deadlock.39Civil Georgia, EU Mediation: PM Garibashvili, Opposition Agree to Continue Dialogue, 1 March 2021

The opposition made a concession by dropping the demand for early elections in exchange for a plebiscite on early elections.40Civil Georgia, Opposition Talks Plebiscite On Snap Elections, EU Mediation after Meeting President Michel, 1 March 2021 Electoral reforms the upcoming municipal elections in autumn 2021, reforms in the judiciary, and the sharing of power in parliament were discussed.41Civil Georgia, Reports: Six Points Discussed During EU Mediated Talks, 3 March 2021 It became the basis for a six-point plan drawn up by the EU. The Swede Christian Danielsson spent a week negotiating in Tbilisi as special envoy on behalf of Charles Michel and the EU without achieving results.42Civil Georgia, EU Mediation: No Deal Reached Yet; Danielsson to Leave for Brussels, 19 March 2021 Upon his return to Tbilisi at the end of March he was unable to get the two sides any closer.43Civil Georgia, EU’s Georgia Mediation Fails Again, 31 March 2021

April-19 Agreement

EU President Charles Michel came with a new proposal on April 18, titled ‘A way forward for Georgia’. The agreement included clauses on power sharing, reforms in the fields of rule of law and democracy. It also contained a clause on early parliamentary elections if Georgian Dream would fail to win more than 43% of the vote in the autumn 2021 local elections.44EU Neighbours East, ‘A way ahead for Georgia’. Proposal by President of the European Council Charles Michel to the representatives of Georgian political parties, 23 April 2021 The agreement was finally accepted and signed a day later by Georgian Dream and part of the opposition. The 36-members strong opposition bloc ‘Strength is in Unity – UNM’ remained the main force against the agreement, with only two MPs signing (Khatuna Samnidze, leader of the Republicans, and Salome Samadashvili of UNM). All MPs of Girchi, Lelo and Citizens signed the agreement, while European Georgia and Strategy Agmashenebeli were divided over the issue. The sole Labour MP, Shalva Natelashvili, and all four MPs of European Socialists (ex-Patriots) refused to sign. In total 112 out of 150 MPs, just one short of a two-third constitutional majority, signed the agreement.45Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream, Opposition, Except for UNM, EG, Sign EU Proposal, 19 April 2021

Meanwhile, six MPs had left the Georgian Dream party in mid-April 2021 to form a new party led by former Prime Minister Gakharia.46Civil Georgia, Six Georgian Dream MPs Quit to Join Gakharia’s Forthcoming Party, 14 April 2021 The party ‘For Georgia’ was initiated in May 2021 and eventually became third in the local elections of October 2021.47Civil Georgia, Former PM Gakharia Inaugurates New Political Party, 29 May 2021 The bipartisan EU-mediated agreement however was not to last. On 28 July 2021 Georgian Dream canceled the agreement, citing the continued refusal of part of the opposition, mainly their arch-rival UNM, to participate in the deal.48Civil Georgia, Georgian Dream Quits EU-brokered Deal, 28 July 2021 Party leader Kobakhidze also lashed out at international partners: “we can see our international partners do not find it necessary to strictly demand from the radical opposition to sign and participate in implementing the document. One-sided loyalty to the April 19 agreement is insulting for our party, and our voters will not forgive us this”. Georgian Dream declared itself not bound by the 43% clause for the upcoming local elections. In September the United National Movement signed the agreement, but to no avail.49Civil Georgia, In Quotes: Political Reactions to UNM Joining EU-Brokered Deal, 2 September 2021 Georgian Dream won the local elections with more than 43% of the total vote, which settled the discussion about early parliamentary elections and effectively ended the political deadlock after a year.

Composition of Parliament

The composition of parliament changed since the elections took place. By 2022 Georgian Dream lost its majority of 90 seats to a “hung” 75 seats due to various splits. In April 2021 six MPs left the party to join former prime minister Giorgi Gakharia in his newly established ‘For Georgia’ party, which would take part in the local elections of fall 2021 in opposition to Georgian Dream. In June and July 2022 four Georgian Dream MPs left the party to form the anti-western ‘Peoples Power’ movement and faction,50Civil Georgia, Dissident GD Members Announce New Public Movement, 28 July 2022 to be followed in October 2022 by five more MPs who joined the former four.51Civil Georgia, Five More MPs Join Ruling Majority’s Anti-Western Flank, 4 October 2022 Peoples Power supports the government, but For Georgia does not. Peoples Power was formed to tell the “true story” about western pressure on Georgia in relation to Russia’s war against Ukraine, accusing western governments of attempting to drag Georgia as second front into that war. The party is considered to be an anti-western front for Georgian Dream, and it has explicitly stated it does not want to burden the government with their messages.

 

Appendix

1. Participating parties and electoral blocs

The complete list of all participating parties and electoral blocs with the votes in the national constituency.

Party / Bloc and list number Votes %
1 Political Party “Whites” 2,103 0.11
2 European Georgia – Movement for Liberty 72.986 3.79
3 Burjanadze – United Georgia – Democratic Movement 16,286 0.85
4 Davit Chichinadze-Tribuna – CDM 9,896 0.51
5 Bloc United National Movement – United Opposition “Strength Is in Unity”
  • United National Movement
  • Republican Party
  • Movement – State for People
  • European Democrats
  • Progress and Freedom
523,127 27.18
6 Future Georgia 2,206 0.11
7 Tamaz Mechiauri for United Georgia 2,782 0.14
8 Alliance of Georgian Patriots 60,480 3.14
9 Gachechiladze – Greens Party 1,305 0.07
10 Shalva Natelashvili – Georgian Labour Party 19,314 1.00
11 Socialist Workers’ Party 610 0.03
12 Movement for Free Georgia 739 0.04
13 Reformer 2,063 0.11
14 Bezhan Gunava- Georgian Choice 2,165 0.11
16 New Christian-Democrats 460 0.02
17 Irakli Okruashvili – Victorious Georgia 3,750 0.19
18 Industry will Save Georgia 1,048 0.05
19 Political Union of Citizens “Our Georgia – Solidarity Alliance of Georgia” 8,335 0.43
20 Sakartvelo 1,189 0.06
21 Free Georgia (Kakha Kukava, Giorgi Tsulaia)” 6,393 0.33
23 New Power 1,458 0.08
24 Aleko Elisashvili – Citizens 25,508 1.33
25 Free Democrats 5,188 0.27
26 Eka Beselia – Political Party “For Justice” 1,979 0.10
27 Bloc Giorgi Vashadze-Strategy Aghmashenebeli
  • Strategy Aghmashenebeli
  • Law and Justice
60,671 3.15
28 Georgian Roots 1,914 0.10
30 Change Georgia 1,292 0.07
31 Tavisupleba – Zviad Gamsakhurdias Way 2,841 0.15
32 People’s Party 1,005 0.05
33 National-Democratic Party” (NDP) 421 0.02
34 For Social Justice 2,885 0.15
36 Girchi 55.598 2.89
41 Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia 928,004 48.22
42 Reformers 1,658 0.09
43 Road of Zviadi (For God, Justice for the Country) 1,563 0.08
44 Levan Chachua, Guram Palavandishvili Georgian Idea 8,263 0.43
45 National Democratic Movement 4,850 0.25
46 Gia Zhorzholiani “Social – Democrats for Development of Georgia” 4,413 0.23
47 Zviad Dzidziguri – Conservative Party of Georgia 3,124 0.16
48 Choice for Homeland 536 0.03
49 Jondo Baghaturia – Georgian Troupe 982 0.05
50 Progressive Georgia 980 0.05
51 Political Movement of Armed Veterans and Patriots of Georgia 3,245 0.17
52 Sergo Javakhadze – Euro-Atlantic Vector 424 0.02
53 Traditionalists 479 0.02
54 Ana Rekhviashvili – Public Movement Christian-Democrats 334 0.02
55 Georgian March – National Movement 4,753 0.25
56 Lelo – Mamuka Khazaradze 60,712 3,15
57 Patriots’ Order Samshoblo 583 0.03
60 Georgian Development Party 1,549 0.08
Total1CESKO reported a total of 1,924,395 votes. The actual sum of the full list released by CESKO is 1,924,449, a gap of 54 votes. 1,924,449 96.57
Invalid ballots 65,434 3.28
Missing ballots2In the released numbers of CESKO a gap of just over 3,000 ballots appeared. The OSCE final report stated these as “missing”, while there is no mention or explanation in the CESKO reporting. CESKO reported 3,062, which is based on the total of 1,924,395 valid votes as released by CESKO. However, as noted above, this sum is 54 votes off from the actual total of counted ballots per party. The “missing ballots” number is adjusted on this website for that gap. 3,008 0.15
Total cast votes 1,992,891 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 3,511,853 56,7
Source: CESKO Final Summary 2020 elections, OSCE Final report.
2. Elected members of Parliament

Out of a total of 150 members of parliament, 120 were elected through proportional representation of the party-lists in the national constituency. The remaining 30 members were elected through single-mandate constituencies. The following table lists all elected MPs as announced by the official election results of the central election commission CESKO and is a snapshot only. Changes have occurred over time, through early terminations of mandates, and they have been noted with a remark. The MPs elected by proportional representation are ordered by their position on the party-list. Underneath this table is a list of MP’s appointed at a later date, as replacements of MPs whose mandates were terminated.

National constituency party-list MPs
  MP Party-list
  Georgian Dream (60)
1 Gakharia, Giorgi   Mandate terminated on 29 December 2020: reappointed as Prime Minister.
2 Talakvadze, Archil    
3 Kobakhidze, Irakli    
4 Tsulukiani, Tea   Mandate terminated on 30 March 2021 after Tsulukiani was appointed as Culture Minister on 19 March 2021.3Civil Georgia, Tea Tsulukiani Appointed Culture Minister, 19 March 2021
5 Mdinaradze, Mamuka    
6 Kuchava, Kakhaber   Mandate terminated on 15 February 2021 after resigning as Parliament Chair in December 2021 and leaving parliament.4Civil Georgia, Parliament Terminates Mandates of Three Opposition MPs, Former Speaker, 15 February 2022 
7 Kakhiani, Giorgi    
8 Kvrivishvili, Mariam   Mandate terminated on 25 May 2021 after becoming deputy Economy minister.5Civil Georgia, New Deputy Economy Minister Appointed, 24 May 2021
9 Sarjveladze, Mikheil    
10 Bitadze, Maia    
11 Daushvili, Mikheil   Left Georgian Dream faction on 14 April 2021 to join ‘For Georgia’ party of ex-PM Giorgi Gakharia
12 Amilakhvari, Giorgi    
13 Sanikidze, Viktor    
14 Bochorishvili, Maka    
15 Papuashvili, Shalva    
16 Kacharava, Davit   Left Georgian Dream faction on 4 October 2022 to join ‘Peoples Power’ party
17 Samkharadze, Nikoloz    
18 Khelashvili, Giorgi    
19 Lashkhi, Mariam    
20 Davituliani, Beka    
21 Okhanashvili, Anri    
22 Khundadze, Dimitri    Left Georgian Dream faction on 28 June 2022 to form ‘Peoples Power’ party
23 Samkharadze, Dimitri    
24 Tsilosani, Nino    
25 Kovzanadze, Irakli    
26 Beraia, Irakli   Left Georgian Dream faction on 4 October 2022 to join ‘Peoples Power’ party
27 Sesiashvili, Irakli   Terminated 25 May 2021 after becoming advisor to the cabinet on defense.6Civil Georgia, PM Garibashvili Appoints Advisers, 13 may 2021
28 Sepashvili, Eka   Left Georgian Dream faction on 4 October 2022 to join ‘Peoples Power’ party
29 Ionatamishvili, Rati    
30 Macharashvili, Guram    Left Georgian Dream faction on 28 July 2022 to join ‘Peoples Power’ party
31 Matikashvili, Daviti    
32 Bolkvadze, Eliso    
33 Kakhadze, Vladimer    
34 Mezurnishvili, Irakli    
35 Mirzoevi, Savalan    
36 Beradze, Ramina    
37 Kiureghian, Sumbat    
38 Tabatadze, Aleksandre    
39 Ghudushauri, Aluda    
40 Zavradashvili, Irma    
41 Zarqua, Irakli    
42 Mikanadze, Givi    
43 Liluashvili, Beka   Left Georgian Dream faction on 14 April 2021 to join ‘For Georgia’ party of ex-PM Giorgi Gakharia
44 Dumbadze, Ketevan    
45 Dalakishvili, Aleksandre    
46 Karumidze, Levan    
47 Medzmariashvili, Irakli    
48 Tsilosani, Khatia    
49 Chachibaia, Vladimer    
50 Daseni, Isko    
51 Japaridze, Viktor    Left Georgian Dream faction on 4 October 2022 to join ‘Peoples Power’ party
52 Menagharishvili, Maia    
53 Toloraia, Edisher    
54 Chanklseliani, Goderdzi    
55 Gotsiridze, Elguja    
56 Buchukuri, Ana   Left Georgian Dream faction on 14 April 2021 to join ‘For Georgia’ party of ex-PM Giorgi Gakharia
57 Benashvili, Gia    
58 Beraia, Irakli    
59 Khabareli, Shota    
60 Taliashvili, Tamar   Mandate terminated on 4 October 2022 after Taliashvili was appointed Resident Representative to the Council of Europe.7Parliament of Georgia, Parliament Approving Termination Of Credentials Of Tamar Taliashvili Upon Her Being Appointed As Resident Representatives Of Georgia To Council Of Europe, 4 October 2022
  United National Movement – “Strength is in Unity” (36)
61 Kikabidze, Vakhtang (“Buba”) non-partisan Mandate terminated 15 January 2023 after death.8Civil Georgia, Obituary | Vakhtang Kikabidze – A Man who Once Embodied “Georgian”, 19 January 2023 No replacement due to annulled party-list.
62 Vashadze, Grigol    
63 Melia, Nika   Mandate terminated on 5 October 2021 upon Melia’s own request.9Civil Georgia, Parliament Terminates Melia’s Mandate, Per his Request,  6 October 2021 No replacement due to annulled party-list.
64 Dekanoidze, Khatia    
65 Nakopia, Koba    
66 Chankotadze, Devi non-partisan  
67 Varshalomidze, Levan    
68 Samadashvili, Salome    
69 Udumashvili, Zaal   Mandate terminated 9 June 2022 upon free will and left party.10Civil Georgia, TV Anchor-Turned-Politician Leaves Parliament, Returns to Media,  30 May 2022 No replacement due to annulled party-list.
70 Samnidze, Khatuna Republican Party of Georgia  
71 Gotsiridze, Roman    
72 Janashia, Teimuraz non-partisan  
73 Chkheidze, Nato State for the People  
74 Nikolaishvili, Ramaz non-partisan  
75 Okriashvili, Kakhaber Progress and Freedom  
76 Sanikidze, Kubaz non-partisan  
77 Ismailovi, Abdula non-partisan  
78 Chocheli, Tsezar Progress and Freedom  
79 Kordzaia, Tamar Republican Party of Georgia  
80 Sibashvili, Sulkhan non-partisan  
81 Godabrelidze, Giorgi    
82 Khajishvili, Davit non-partisan  
83 Khabuliani, Dilar Progress and Freedom  
84 Bokuchava, Tinatin    
85 Chkheidze, Rostom State for the People  
86 Kirkitadze, Davit    
87 Botkoveli, Giorgi    
88 Kherkheulidze, Ekaterine    
89 Kvirkvelia, Manuchar Progress and Freedom  
90 Machutadze, Nika State for the People  
91 Minashvili, Akaki    
92 Mamulashvili, Nona non-partisan Mandate terminated 16 November 2021 upon free will and left party.11Agenda.ge, UNM member Mamulashvili leaves parliament amid opposition protests of election results, 1 November 2021 No replacement due to annulled party-list.
93 Bezhashvili, Levan    
94 Kardava, Bachuki non-partisan  
95 Khabeishvili, Levan    
96 Tsitlidze, Ana    
  European Georgia (5)
97 Bakradze, David    
98 Shavgulidze, Shalva    
99 Khoshtaria, Elene   Mandate terminated on 15 February 2022. Reason: persistent absence (boycott) from parliament (see Civil Georgia, 15 February 2022). No replacement due to annulled party-list.
100 Akhvlediani, Armaz    
101 Nakaidze, Tariel    
  Lelo (4)
102 Khazaradze, Mamuka   Mandate terminated on 16 November 2021 upon own request.12Civil Georgia, Parliament Terminates Two Opposition MPs’ Mandates, per Their Request, 17 November 2021
103 Japaridze, Badri   Mandate terminated on 15 February 2022 (see Civil Georgia, 15 February 2022) No replacement due to annulled party-list.
104 Usupashvili, Davit    
105 Natsvlishvili, Ana    
  Bloc Strategy Aghmashenebeli (4)
106 Vashadze, Giorgi Strategy Aghmashenebeli  
107 Charkviani, Tamar Law and Justice  
108 Manjgaladze, Paata Strategy Aghmashenebeli  
109 Akubardia, Teona Strategy Aghmashenebeli  
  Alliance of Georgian Patriots (4)13After the inauguration of parliament three Patriot MPs relinquished their mandates. Three lower positioned were appointed on 5 January 2021: Inja Fridon, Gela Mikadze and Zilpimiani. The four MPs, including Enukidze, immediately left the party and launched the “European Socialists” party and group. Civil Georgia, Four Opposition MPs Quit Alliance of Patriots Party, Enter Parliament, 5 January 2021
110 Inashvili, Irma   Mandate terminated on 4 January 2021 (see above note)
111 Lomia, Giorgi   Mandate terminated on 4 January 2021
112 Tevdoradze, Gocha   Mandate terminated on 4 January 2021
113 Enukidze, Avtandil    
  Girchi (4)
114 Japaridze, Zurab Girchi   Mandate terminated on 16 November 2021 upon own request.14Civil Georgia, Parliament Terminates Two Opposition MPs’ Mandates, per Their Request, 17 November 2021
115 Khvichia, Iago    
116 Megrelishvili, Vakhtangi    
117 Mujiri, Salome   Mandate terminated on 25 May 2021. Although voluntarily, indications that Mujiri was forced to leave by her party which was against the 1 in 4 gender quota.15Civil Georgia, The Dispatch – May 26/27: Times They Are A-Changin’, 27 May 2021
  Citizens (2)
118 Elisashvili, Aleko    
119 Ioseliani, Levan    
  Georgian Labour Party (1)
120 Natelashvili, Shalva   Mandate terminated on 15 February 2022. Reason: persistent absence (boycott) from parliament (see Civil Georgia, 15 February 2022) No replacement due to annulled party-list.
Single-mandate constituencies
# MP Party Remarks
1 Odisharia, Beka Georgian Dream  
2 Turdzeladze, Nodar Georgian Dream  
3 Sergeenko, Davit Georgian Dream  
4 Kakhishvili, Kakha Georgian Dream  
5 Subari, Sozar Georgian Dream Left Georgian Dream faction on 28 June 2022 to form ‘Peoples Power’ party
6 Volski, Giorgi Georgian Dream  
7 Kavelashvili, Mikheil Georgian Dream  Left Georgian Dream faction on 28 June 2022 to form ‘Peoples Power’ party
8 Lobiashvili, Levan Georgian Dream  
9 Songhulashvili, Davit Georgian Dream  
10 Kadagishvili, Irakli Georgian Dream  
11 Kereselidze, Shakva Georgian Dream Left Georgian Dream faction on 14 April 2021 to join ‘For Georgia’ party of ex-PM Giorgi Gakharia
12 Latsabidze, Nino Georgian Dream Left parliament on 1 December 2021 after winning mayoral election of Rustavi.16The mandate of Nino Latsabidze was terminated on 1 December 2021 after she won the mayoral run-off for the city of Rustavi, the city of the district she was MP for (Civil Georgia, Parliament Terminates MP Mandate of Newly Elected Rustavi Mayor, 2 December 2021). By-election for the MP seat was held on 2 April 2022 and was won with 90.6% in a single round by Irakli Shatakishvili of Georgian Dream (Civil Georgia, Ruling Party Candidate Wins Rustavi MP By-Elections, 3 April 2022). Leading opposition parties did not put forward a candidate. Turnout was 29%.
13 Dargali, Zaur Georgian Dream  
14 Meshveliani, Gogi Georgian Dream  
15 Khojevanishvili, Giorgi Georgian Dream Left Georgian Dream faction on 14 April 2021 to join ‘For Georgia’ party of ex-PM Giorgi Gakharia. Left parliament and ‘For Georgia’ on 6 February 2023.17InterpressNews, Giorgi Khojevanishvili is leaving the “For Georgia” party and the parliamentary mandate, 6 February 2023.
16 Dugladze, Zaal Georgian Dream  
17 Obolashvili, Anton Georgian Dream  
18 Manukian, Samvel Georgian Dream  
19 Enukidze, Gocha Georgian Dream  
20 Kvizhinadze, Paata Georgian Dream  
21 Tsakadze, Bezhan Georgian Dream  
22 Chichinadze, Givi Georgian Dream  
23 Lominadze, Zaza Georgian Dream  
24 Chigogidze, Vasil Georgian Dream  
25 Motserelia, Aleksandre Georgian Dream Left Georgian Dream faction on 14 April 2021 to join ‘For Georgia’ party of ex-PM Giorgi Gakharia
26 Khakhubia, Irakli Georgian Dream Mandate terminated on 28 October 2022 after Khakhubia died due to alleged suicide.18Radio Free Europe, Georgian Lawmaker Of Ruling Party Found Dead At Home, 27 October 2022
27 Chikovani, Irakli Georgian Dream  
28 Kontselidze, Resan Georgian Dream  
29 Mikeladze, Zaal Georgian Dream Left Georgian Dream faction on 4 October 2022 to join ‘Peoples Power’ party
30 Bolkvadze, Anzor Georgian Dream  
Sources: Final summary election results (CESKO) and Parliament website.19Parliament of Georgia, members of the 10th Convocation.
Members of Parliament that were appointed at a later stage during the 10th Convocation (due to terminations of originally inaugurated MPs).
National constituency party-list MPs
  MP Party-list
  Georgian Dream
1 Mgaloblishvili, Levan From 5 January 2021, replacing Giorgi Gakharia
2 Iobashvili, Nino From 1 April 2021, replacing Tea Tsulukiani
3 Kvitsiani, Baia From 27 May 2021, replacing Mariam Kvrivishvili
4 Samkharauli, Gela From 27 May 2021, replacing Irakli Sesiashvili
5 Tsagareishvili, Giorgi From 1 March 2022, replacing Kakha Kukchava
6 Tsitsava, Henrietta From 5 October 2022, replacing Tamar Taliashvili
  Alliance of Georgian Patriots (rebranding as “European Socialists”)
1 Mikadze, Zaza From 5 January 2021, replacing Irma Inashvili
2 Fridon, Inja From 5 January 2021, replacing Giorgi Lomia
3 Zilpimiani, Davit From 5 January 2021, replacing Gocha Tevdoradze
  Girchi
1 Rakviashvili, Alexander From 27 May 2021, replacing Salome Mujiri
2 Szabo, Hermann From 19 November 2021, replacing Zurab Girchi Japaridze20Civil Georgia, Parliament Endorses Credentials of Hermann Szabó, 19 November 2021
Single-mandate constituencies
# MP Party Remarks
12 Shatakishvili, Irakli Georgian Dream From 12 April 2022 (see Nino Latsabidze)
26 << to be elected >>     After the death of Irakli Khakhubia
15 << to be elected >>     After Giorgi Khojevanishvili resigned from his mandate
3. Single-mandate constituencies

The thirty single-mandate districts with number of registered voters, actual votes and turnout. Tbilisi was divided in eight constituencies.

The 30 single-mandate constituencies in the 2020 elections (illustration Jelger Groeneveld)
The 30 single-mandate constituencies in the 2020 elections (illustration Jelger Groeneveld)

# Area Voters Votes Invalid Turnout
1 Tbilisi: Mtatsminda-Krtsanisi District 95,665 53,073 3,677 55,5%
2 Tbilisi: Vake District 104,085 62,993 2,636 60,5%
3 Tbilisi: Saburtalo District 133,401 77,829 3,723 58,3%
4 Tbilisi: Isani District 114,615 57,442 2,526 50,1%
5 Tbilisi: Samgori District 145,779 74,388 3,662 51,0%
6 Tbilisi: Didube and Chughureti Districts 128,792 73,319 3,431 56,9%
7 Tbilisi: Nadzaladevi District 135,008 70,706 4,760 52,4%
8 Tbilisi: Gldani District 146,008 76,107 3,397 52,1%
9 Gurjaani, Sagarejo, Dedoplistskaro and Signagi Municipalities 149,542 88,814 3,164 59,4%
10 Telavi, Akhmeta, Kvareli and Lagodekhi Municipalities 153,609 91,824 3,444 59,8%
11 Mtskheta, Dusheti, Tianeti and Kazbegi Municipalities 87,986 52,901 1,772 60,1%
12 Rustavi Municipality and parts of Gardabani Mun.21Including the administrative units Norio, Martkopi, Akhalsopeli, Sartichala, Gamarjveba, Akhali Samgori, Lemshvenieri, Teleti, Kumisi and Krtsanisi. 141,453 78,784 3,015 55,7%
13 Marneuli Municipality and part of Gardabani Mun.22Except Norio, Martkopi, Akhalsopeli, Sartichala, Gamarjveba, Akhali Samgori, Lemshvenieri, Teleti, Kumisi and Krtsanisi Administrative Units 138,121 63,375 2,503 45,9%
14 Bolnisi, Dmanisi, Tetritskaro and Tsalka Municipalities 120,521 62,554 2,436 51,9%
15 Kaspi and Gori Municipalities.23Except Variani, Nikozi, Tirdznisi, Skra and Shindisi administrative units of Gori. 135,795 78,111 3,484 57,5%
16 Khashuri and Kareli Municipalities and part of Gori Mun.24Including Variani, Nikozi, Tirdznisi, Skra and Shindisi administrative units of Gori. 103,798 61,192 2,296 59,0%
17 Akhaltsikhe, Borjomi, Adigeni and Aspindza Municipalities 86,215 55,585 1,804 64,5%
18 Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda Municipalities 57,886 32,303 1,228 55,8%
19 Ambrolauri, Oni, Tsageri, Lentekhi and Mestia Municipalities 44,204 27,944 992 63,2%
20 Sachkhere, Chiatura and Kharagauli Municipalities 103,837 64,531 2,021 62,1%
21 Tkibuli, Terjola, Zestaponi and Bagdati Municipalities 131,201 79,963 2,844 60,9%
22 Samtredia, Tskaltubo, Vani and Khoni Municipalities 144,097 85,848 3,320 59,6%
23 Kutaisi Municipality 155,010 74,796 3,309 48,3%
24 Ozurgeti, Lanchkhuti and Chokhatauri Municipalities 107,948 65,913 2,453 61,1%
25 Tsalenjikha, Chkhorotsku, Martvili and Abasha Municipalities 103,578 62,660 2,756 60,5%
26 Poti, Khobi and Senaki Municipalities 108,498 63,715 2,682 58,7%
27 Zugdidi Municipality 120,312 56,468 2,103 46,9%
28 Batumi Municipality 147,292 81,373 2,940 55,2%
29 Kobuleti Municipality and Makhinjauri (Khelvachauri Municipality) 70,837 43,375 1,304 61,2%
30 Keda, Shuakhevi, Khulo and Khelvachauri Municipalities25Except Makhinjauri 96,760 62,115 2,341 64,1%
Source: CESKO Final Summary 2020 elections, OSCE Final report and Civil Georgia.26Civil Georgia, 490 MP Candidates to Run in 30 Majoritarian Constituencies, 29 October 2020

References and footnotes

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