1999 Elections Parliament of Georgia

The elections for the 5th Convocation of the Parliament of Georgia took place on 31 October 1999 and 14 November 1999. The elections were won by the ruling Citizens Union of Georgia (CUG) of President Eduard Shevardnadze, which received 41.75% of the proportional vote. Its main rival from the autonomous republic of Adjara, the Revival of Georgia bloc, got nearly 27% of the vote. 

The Citizens Union claimed a majority in parliament by also winning a major portion of the single-mandate districts. Only three parties managed to pass the 7% threshold. Nineteen parties and twelve electoral blocs participated in the elections.

 

 

Elections

The elections were scheduled to take place on 31 October 1999, the last Saturday of October as stipulated in the constitution. A second round was scheduled on 14 November 1999 for run-off elections in single mandate constituencies if required when none of the candidates in a constituency would have passed the one-third threshold.1OSCE, Georgia Parliamentary Elections 31 October & 14 November 1999 – Final Report, (2000): p3.

Electoral system

According to the Georgian law the parliament had a size of 235 deputies. These were elected through a mixed electoral system in which 150 deputies were elected through proportional representation according to party lists and 85 deputies were to be elected through single-mandate constituencies.2Legislative Herald of Georgia, Law for the election of the Parliament of Georgia, No.790, (9 September 1995), article 1.2. Elections could not take place in Abkhazia and parts of South Ossetia.

For the proportional representation a 7% threshold was maintained. Prior to the elections the threshold was raised from 5% to 7%,3Legislative Herald of Georgia, Amendments to the Election law of the Parliament of Georgia, No.2248, (20 July 1999), bullet 7a, concerning Article 54.6. which was according to the OSCE unusually high among its members.4OSCE, (2000): p4. To determine whether a party reached the electoral threshold, the percentage was calculated over all cast votes, including the invalid ones. For the single-mandate districts a 33% threshold (one-third) was applied for winning the district in the first round. A second round was to be held when none of the candidates passed the one-third vote share. Second rounds were planned for 14 November 1999. The single-mandate constituencies ranged in size from 4,000 to 135,000 registered voters, causing an unequal vote weight, as the OSCE reported. This disparity was only fixed prior the 2016 election.

By electoral law eight seats of the parliament were reserved for single-mandate constituencies in Abkhazia.5Legislative Herald of Georgia, Single-mandate constituencies for the elections of the Parliament of Georgia, Commission Resolution No. 21/1999, (4 August 1999), appendix. Since these districts could not participate in the elections, the law stipulated that the mandates of the MPs elected in 1992 from Abkhazia were automatically extended. This concerned in total twelve MPs, including four who elected through party lists.6Darrell Slider, “Recent Elections in Georgia: At Long Last, Stability?” (pdf), Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, 8, no. 4 (Fall 2000): p519. However, this brought the total number of allocated seats to 239, four more than the constitution provided for. The OSCE noted this discrepancy and reported in their election observation report that the Central Election Commission referred this problem to the new parliament.7OSCE, (2000): p26.

Furthermore, four single-mandate constituencies were in South Ossetia, namely the districts of Java, Tskhinvali City, Akhalgori and the newly created Liakhvi district to cover for the Kurta and Eredvi communities under Georgian control. These communities officially resided under the Gori district, but were not in the situation to be administered from there.8Legislative Herald of Georgia, Doc. No.21/1999, Single-mandate constituencies. The elections did not take place in Java and Tskhinvali and these seats remained vacant. They were effectively taken up by two Abkhaz MPs that were officially in excess. To facilitate the two other Abkhazian MPs, the single-mandate constituencies of Martvili and Khobi were combined as well as the Ozurgeti and Lanchkhuti constituencies (see appendix 2). Thus in 73 electoral constituencies the single-mandate races were held. 

Parties

Initially, more than 50 parties and electoral blocs applied to the Central Election Commission to participate in the elections,9OSCE, (2000): p12. but after cancellations by the election authorities 20 parties and 13 blocs were on the ballot.10Publika, History of parliamentary elections, (2020), accessed 19 December 2022. The fierce campaign, according to the OSCE, was evidence of political pluralism in Georgia, with a clear distinction between competing political interests, although the tone occasionally crossed the acceptable boundaries of political competition.11OSCE, (2000): p18. The campaign was accompanied by incidents of violence, including the shooting of a candidate.

The main contestants in the elections were the ruling Citizens Union of president Shevardnadze and the Revival bloc of Adjarian leader Aslan Abashidze, also known as “Batumi Alliance”. Number two on the Revival list was Jumber Patiashvili, the former leader of the Georgian SSR (1985-1989) and contestant for the Georgian presidency in 1995 against Shevardnadze. The Revival bloc consisted of Abashidze’s Revival Party and four other parties with different political ideologies, sharing a pro-Russian (or “North-South realignment”) foreign policy vision. They emphasized improving relations with Russia and Turkey to restore control over the Abkhazia, while the Citizens Union and its reform minded group around Parliament Chair Zurab Zhvania had a distinct pro-western foreign policy position.12Slider, p524. The party placed nearly 50 young western-educated members on the list to convince voters the party was serious about continuing reforms and ending corruption. It emphasized a victory of Abashidze would “threaten Georgia’s statehood”.13Commission On Security And Cooperation In Europe, U. S. Helsinki Commission, Report On Georgia’s Parliamentary Elections: October 1999, (1999), accessed 19 December 2022. It fed the polarizing, hostile and at times violent campaign.

The new “Industry Will Save Georgia”, led by beer magnate Giorgi Topadze, formed a bloc with four other parties and ran a campaign on tax liberalization and other economic reforms. The U. S. Helsinki Commission noted that the nationalist message of the Industrialists “emphasized the need to protect Georgia’s industries from foreign competition”. The bloc argued against the sale to foreigners of strategic assets such as energy stations and the Black Sea port of Poti.  In general it opposed Western strictures on how to run Georgia’s economy, such as the IMF, the US noted.14U. S. Helsinki Commission, (1999).

The National Democratic Party was joined by the liberal Republican Party for the elections, profiling as “the third way”. The NDP originally proposed the 7% threshold, but failed itself to pass it with less than 5%, partly due to a split by the People’s Party.15Slider, p525-526.

Eduard Shevardnadze and Aslan Abashidze. Photo: Nani Gugunava
Eduard Shevardnadze and Aslan Abashidze were the victors of the elections (Photo: Nani Gugunava).

Results

The ruling Citizens Union of President Eduard Shevardnadze won the elections, obtaining a solid majority with 130 of 235 seats. The party received 41.75% of the national votes, followed by the Revival of Georgia bloc (“Batumi Alliance”) led by Adjarian leader Aslan Abashidze which received 25% of the vote. Apart from the new Industry Will Save Georgia the other parties failed to clear the 7% electoral threshold. In 49 constituencies an MP was elected in the first round. Elections in dozens polling stations were annulled and had to be repeated prior to a second round. Most of the second round races in single-mandate constituencies were won by the Citizens Union. The elections in the Keda and Martvili constituencies were repeatedly cancelled and as result they were only first elected in Fall 2000, after the presidential elections.16OSCE, (2000): p28. By that time this resulted in 237 members of parliament, two above the legal size of the parliament according to the constitution. The OSCE warned for this scenario in its elections observation report,17OSCE, (2000): p26. but the issue remained unresolved for the duration of the 5th parliament.

The director of the Fair Elections organization, Nugzar Ivanidze, said the elections “can be called multi-party, but they weren’t democratic”.18IWPR, “Shevardnadze’s Citizens Top Abashidze’s Revivalists”, 4 November 1999, accessed December 2022. The overall turnout was 67.9%, slightly higher than in 1995. The officially recorded turnout varied in distinct pockets throughout the country. Most noteworthy was a turnout of more than 95% of the 254.000 registered voters in Adjara. The highest turnout (98.6%) was recorded in Marneuli district in the Kvemo Kartli region south of capital Tbilisi. In two other Kvemo Kartli districts turnouts around 90% were recorded. In other areas the turnout was not noteworthy higher than the average. Observers recorded most election fraud in Adjara.19OSCE, (2000): p21.

Party Partylist Vote Seats
Votes % Prop. District Total +/-
Citizens Union of Georgia 890,915 41.75 85 45 130 +22
Revival of Georgia (“Batumi Alliance”) 537,297 25.18 51 7 58 +24
Industry Will Save Georgia 151,038 7.08 14 1 15 +15
Georgian Labour Party 140,595 6.59 0 2 2 +1
National Democratic Alliance “Third Way” 95,039 4.95 0 0 0 -35
Popular Party–Digori 87,781 4.11 0 0 0
United Communist Party 28,736 1.35 0 0 0
Georgian Party for the Protection of Veterans 11,708 0.55 0 0 0
Green Party 11,400 0.53 0 0 0
Merab Kostava Society 10,357 0.49 0 0 0
Political Union Support 412 0.02 0 0 0 -3
Other parties and blocs2022 other parties and election blocs on the ballot received a total of 37,756 votes (or 1.77%). Twelve of these received less than 1000 votes. Five other parties elected in 1995 did not participate, amounting to -10 seats. The two vacant seats allocated to South Ossetian districts were effectively taken up by two Abkhazian MPs. 37,756 1.77 0 0 0 -12
Independents   17 17 -12
Abkhazian deputies21Automatically extended mandate   12 12
Total 2,003,034 93.87 150 85 235
Invalid/blank votes22The number was not officially released by the CEC but is calculated from the difference between total number of counted votes on parties (2,003,034) and the total number of cast votes (2,133,878). Major sources cite two different numbers: 130,837 and 130,844. This is caused by a difference of 3 votes for the United Communist Party (28,736 vs 28,739) and 4 for the Democratic Center (452 vs 456) resulting in a different total of counted votes (2,003,034 vs 2,003,041). The list above maintains the number of votes as documented by the Central Election Commission in their 2020 publication on the history of Georgian elections. 130,844 6.13  
Total cast votes 2,133,878 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 3,143,851 67.87
Sources: CEC,23CEC, Electoral History of Georgia 1990-2018 (pdf), (2020): p113-121, Nohlen et al,24Nohlen, Dieter, Natalie Kuchinka‐Lančava, and Florian Grotz. “Georgia” Chapter in “Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume I: Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia“: p371–406. Oxford University Press, 2001. OSCE,25 OSCE.25OSCE, (2000): p28.

Election observation

The elections were observed by roughly 2,500 domestic and nearly 200 OSCE observers. Among the 177 OSCE short-term observers were representatives of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, staff of embassies in Tbilisi and representatives of other international organizations. They visited more than 800 of the approximately 2,600 polling stations.26OSCE, (2000), p1. For the second round 35 observers were deployed by the OSCE. With 2,200 volunteers, the NGO International Society for Fair Elections and Democracy (ISFED) provided by far the largest share of Georgian observers.27OSCE, (2000), p20.

After the elections, the OSCE judged that the conduct of the elections were a step in the right direction of Georgia’s compliance with OSCE commitments, while adding that “the electoral process failed to fully deliver on all commitments”. Despite a generally positive view of the first round, the OSCE highlighted incidents of intimidation and violence during the campaign. The electoral law was further criticized for allowing the ruling party to “take a dominant position in the electoral administration at all levels”.28OSCE, (2000), p1.

International Reactions

The United States Commission of Security and Cooperation in Europe released a report on the elections and stated that the “outcome did not indicate how tense the race had been between the CUG and the leftist, pro-Russian ‘Batumi Alliance'”.29U. S. Helsinki Commission, (1999). It said that a win by the latter would have threatened “to move Georgia into Russia’s orbit and away from market reforms”. The report also addressed that not all of the Central Election Commission members signed off on the elections:

With such high stakes and relations so confrontational between the contending forces, charges of widespread fraud dogged the elections. Of the Central Election Commission’s 19 members, only 13 signed the document announcing the results. Nevertheless, OSCE’s observation mission called the first round of the election a “step towards” compliance with OSCE commitments, adding that most of the worst violations occurred in Ajaria. OSCE’s verdict after the November 14 second round was more critical, noting violence at some polling stations and vote rigging and intimidation at others. OSCE’s initial cautiously positive judgement, however, allowed Eduard Shevardnadze to claim that democratization is proceeding in Georgia and that the country’s admission to the Council of Europe was well deserved.

Appendix

1. Participating parties and electoral blocs
Party / Bloc and list number Votes %
1 Citizens Union of Georgia 890,915 41.75
2 Bloc “Revival of Georgia” (“Batumi Alliance”)
  • Democratic Union for Revival
  • Socialist Party of Georgia
  • Konstantine Gamsakhurdia Society
  • Freedom and Justice Movement of Georgia “Chkondideli”
  • Georgian Liberation Movement “Nation’s Cry”
537,297 25.18
3 Georgian Labour Party 140,595 6.59
4 Bloc “National Democratic Alliance – Third Way”
  • National Democratic Party
  • Republican Party of Georgia
  • Georgian Industry and Economic Development Party
95,039 4.95
5 Bloc “People’s Didgori”
  • People’s Party
  • Georgian Independence and Unity Party “Didgori”
  • People’s Union
87,781 4.11
6 Bloc “People’s Front-Chavchavadze Society”
  • People’s Front of Georgia
  • Ilia Chavchavadze Society
4,339 0.20
7 Bloc “Industry Will Save Georgia”
  • Political Movement “Industry Saves Georgia”
  • Political Union “Movement for Georgian State”
  • Union of Reformers and Agrarians of Georgia
  • Political Union National Movement “Georgia First of All”
  • Political Union “Athletic Georgia”
151,038 7.08
8 Bloc “United National Movement”
  • Political Union “United National Movement”
  • Union of Athletes of Georgia
994 0.05
9 Green Party of Georgia 11,400 0.53
10 Freedom Party of Georgia 828 0.04
12 Party of Economically and Socially Deprived People in Georgia 2,171 0.10
13 Political Union “Support” 412 0.02
14 People’s Democratic Party 1,917 0.09
15 Bloc “Victorious Georgia – God’s Cathedral”
  • Georgian National-State Union “Victorious”
  • Georgian Realists Union
4,275 0.20
17 Georgian Party for the Protection of Veterans 11,708 0.55
18 National Ideology Party of Georgia 529 0.02
20 Christian Democratic Union of Georgia 2,951 0.14
22 Political Union of Citizens “Lecturers’ Union of Georgia” 643 0.03
23 Political Union of Citizens – All-Georgian Farmers Union 333 0.02
24 Merab Kostava Society 10,357 0.49
26 Union of Social Justice of Georgia 1,200 0.06
29 Bloc “United Communist Party (Stalinist) and Workers Councils”
  • United Communist Party of Georgia
  • Political Union “Workers’ Councils of Georgia”
28,736 1.35
30 Union of Georgian Nationalists 555 0.03
31 Bloc “XXI Century – Georgian Nationalism” Bloc
  • Political Union “Heart of Georgia – XXI”
  • Political Union “Fatherland”
  • Women’s Protection Union
1,058 0.05
35 Davit Aghmashenebeli Party 758 0.04
36 Democratic Center 452 0.03
37 Bloc “Communists – Stalinists”
  • Communist Party of Georgia
  • “Stalinist” Party
3,778 0.18
39 Bloc “National Concord Party of Georgia”
  • National Concord Party of Georgia
  • Political League of Georgian Mountaineers
733 0.03
40 Bloc “Round Table – Free Georgia”
  • Helsinki Union of Georgia – National Revival
  • Christian Conservative Party of Georgia
  • Royal League of Georgia
  • Christian Social Union of Georgia
  • People’s Democratic Union – Christian Democrats
  • All-Georgian “St. Ilia the Righteous Society”
5,657 0.27
41 Political Movement “The Fate of Georgia” 419 0.02
42 Intellectuals League of Georgia 344 0.02
43 Nationalist Party of Georgia 593 0.03
45 Bloc “Revived Communists and People’s Patriots”
  • Revived Communist Party of Georgia
  • Democratic Union of Georgia
3,229 0.15
Total 2,003,034 93.87
Invalid/blank votes 130,844 6.13
Total cast votes 2,133,878 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 3,143,851 67.87
Source: CEC1CEC, Electoral History of Georgia 1990-2018: 113-121, Nohlen et al.2Nohlen (2001)
2. Elected members of Parliament

150 Members of parliament were elected through proportional representation via the party-lists in the national constituency. 73 members were elected by single-mandate constituencies and 12 mandates were automatically extended (Abkhazia). The following table gives all MPs confirmed by resolution at the first session of 20 November 1999, while two others were confirmed on 7 December 1999 due to repeat single-mandate elections. This list is a snapshot only. Due to subsequent early terminations various changes occurred which are not reflected in this list, either through the party-list or single-mandate by-elections depending on the terminated mandate.

National constituency party-list MPs
  MP Party-list  
1 Adeishvili, Zurab Citizens Union of Georgia (85)
2 Aidinov, Vitali
3 Akhvlediani, Armaz
4 Amaghlobeli, Nodar
5 Amirkhanashvili, Koba
6 Bagrationi, Jansugh
7 Baiburti, Van
8 Bakirov, Ramiz
9 Bichiashvili, Nanuli
10 Burjanadze, Nino
11 Charkviani, Jansugh
12 Chechelashvili, Giorgi
13 Chelidze, Iveri
14 Chitaia, Kakha
15 Chitanava, Otar
16 Chubinishvili, Irakli
17 Dalakishvili, Roman
18 Davitashvili, Koba
19 Dolidze, Rostom
20 Dvali, Zaza
21 Ezugbaia, Jansugh
22 Gachechiladze, Levan
23 Gamkrelidze, David
24 Gamkrelidze, Tamaz
25 Gegeshidze, David
26 Gigineishvili, Manana
27 Giorkhelidze, Demur
28 Gogava, Irakli
29 Gvadzabia, David
30 Iashvili, Irakli
31 Ingoroqva, Anton
32 Jaiani, Dimitri
33 Karseladze, Vladimer
34 Kereselidze, David
35 Khazaradze, Vitali
36 Kheviashvili, Giorgi
37 Khoperia, Nino
38 Khurtsidze, Teimuraz
39 Kirvalidze, David
40 Koghuashvili, David
41 Kokhreidze, Giorgi
42 Kurbanov, Izumrud
43 Kusiani, Roman
44 Kvaratskhelia, Gela
45 Kvaratskhelia, Valeri
46 Kvirikashvili, Giorgi
47 Lagvilava, Besik
48 Lazarashvili, Giorgi
49 Leluashvili, Vasil
50 Machavariani, Mikheil
51 Maglaperidze, Vasil
52 Maghradze, David
53 Makharadze, Malkhaz
54 Mamedov, Mamed
55 Medzmariashvili, Elguja
56 Meparishvili, Gia
57 Merabishvili, Ivane
58 Movsesian, Hamlet
59 Nadareishvili, Tamaz
60 Naneishvili, Mikheil
61 Ninoshvili, Tamar
62 Noighadeli, Zurab
63 Osadze, Mikheil
64 Saganelidze, David
65 Shaishmelashvili, Giorgi
66 Shamiladze, Vakhtang
67 Shelia, Gulnara
68 Shengelaia, Eldar
69 Sherazadishvili, Zakaria
70 Shkhvatsabaia, Zurab
71 Shugharov, Givi
72 Simonidze, Maia
73 Sioridze, Zaza
74 Svanidze, Jemal
75 Tamarashvili, Anzor
76 Tavadze, Robert
77 Tavberidze, Ilia
78 Tediashvili, Levan
79 Tevdoradze, Elene
80 Tkeshelashvili, David
81 Tsereteli, Giorgi
82 Tsiskarishvili, Petre
83 Tskitishvili, Zurab
84 Vashakmadze, Giorgi
85 Zhvania Zurab
86 Abashidze, Aslan Revival of Georgia (51)
87 Abashidze, Dali3Immediately joined faction of Citizens Union
88 Abashidze, David
89 Abralava, Anzor
90 Asatiani, Akaki
91 Asatiani, Archil
92 Bakradze, Roman
93 Bochorishvili, Vakhtang
94 Bolotashvili, Givi
95 Bregadze, Alexandre
96 Chichinadze, David
97 Chikhradze, Iuri
98 Chipashvili, Hamlet
99 Chkheidze, Nato
100 Devdariani, Nana
101 Gamakharia, Jemal
102 Gelashvili, Tamaz
103 Gelbakhiani, Valerian
104 Ghoghoberidze, Teimuraz
105 Ghudushauri, Irakli
106 Gogitidze, Jemal
107 Gvaramia, Vakhtang
108 Janashia, Teimuraz
109 Javakhishvili, Nodar
110 Javelidze, Elizbar
111 Kachlishvili, Ivane
112 Kapianidze, Zurab
113 Khachapuridze, Giorgi
114 Kutsnashvili, Zakaria
115 Kvitsiani, Vakhtang
116 Machavariani, Mukhran
117 Megrelishvili, Teimuraz
118 Mindeli, Irakli
119 Mishveladze, Revaz
120 Modebade, Nodar
121 Nadiradze, Eldar
122 Nadiradze, Maia
123 Navadze, Nugzar
124 Okuashvili, Zaza
125 Paatashvili, Tedo
126 Paichadze, Grigol
127 Patarkalishvili, Natela
128 Patiashvili, Jumber
129 Pichkhaia, Teimuraz
130 Razmadze, Vakhtang
131 Rcheulishvili, Vakhtang
132 Sanikidze, Gubaz
133 Shalamberidze, Alexandre
134 Sigua, Soso
135 Targamadze, Giorgi
136 Tevdoradze, Merab
137 Bakuradze, Jambul Industry Will Save Georgia (14)
138 Batiashvili, Irakli
139 Bezhanishvili, Tamaz
140 Chikhradze, Pikria
141 Giuashvili, Kakha
142 Gventsadze, Roman
143 Khmaladze, Vakhtang
144 Khutsishvili, Ilia
145 Managadze, Lavrenti
146 Rurua, Roman
147 Salaridze, David
148 Sharadze, Guram
149 Tkemaladze, Zurab
150 Topadze, Giorgi
Single-mandate constituencies
  MP Party Constituency #
1 Gogelia, Archil Citizens Tbilisi – Mtatsminda 1
2 Saakashvili, Mikheil Citizens Tbilisi – Vake 2
3 Adamia, Revaz Citizens Tbilisi – Saburtalo 3
4 Liparteliani, Gogi Independent Tbilisi – Krtsani 4
5 Karkarashvili, Giorgi Independent Tbilisi – Isani 5
6 Jakeli, Giorgi Citizens Tbilisi – Samgori 6
7 Ghughunishvili, Zezva Citizens Tbilisi – Chugureti 7
8 Baramidze, Giorgi Citizens Tbilisi – Didube 8
9 Samadashvili, Merab Independent Tbilisi – Nadzaladevi 9
10 Giorgadze, Tamaz Citizens Tbilisi – Gldani 10
11 Chanturia, Samson Citizens Abasha 63
12 Kimadze, Gocha Independent Adigeni 38
13 Chitishvili, Avtandil Citizens Akhalgori 31
14 Raisian, Melik Citizens Akhalkalaki 40
15 Gvaramadze, Gocha Citizens Akhaltsikhe 37
16 Lekishvili, Nikoloz Citizens Ambrolauri 44
17 Surmanidze, Edvard Citizens Aspindza 39
18 Arveladze, Revaz Citizens Akhmeta 18
19 Mskhviladze, Zurab Citizens Baghdadi 52
20 Smirba, Aslan Revival Batumi 79
21 Avkopashvili, Guram Citizens Bolnisi 23
22 Grigalashvili, Nodar Labour Borjomi 36
23 Kobakhidze, Mose Citizens Chiatura 56
24 Zhvania, Arnold Citizens Chkhorotsku 69
25 Zhgenti, David Citizens Chokhatauri 62
26 Gonashvili, Bezhan Citizens Dedoplistskaro 14
27 Tsikhelashvili, Teimuraz Independent Dmanisi 24
28 Molodini, Marina Citizens Dusheti 28
29 Japaridze, Leonide Citizens Gardabani 21
30 Kanchaveli, Vakhtang Citizens Gori 32
31 Giligashvili, Roland Citizens Gurjaani 12
32 Induashvili, Albert Citizens Kareli 33
33 Karumidze, Zurab Citizens Kaspi 30
34 Sujashvili, Rezo Independent Kazbegi 29
  see note   Keda 80
35 Chipashvili, Vladimer Citizens Kharagauli 48
36 Gelashvili, Valeri Independent Khashuri 35
37 Abashidze, Vakhtang Revival Khelvachauri 83
38 Kemularia, Konstantine Independent Khobi 66
39 Mebuke, Jemal Citzens Khoni 55
40 Ghorjomeladze, Otar Independent Khulo 84
41 Japaridze, Rostom Revival Kobuleti 81
42 Sandukhadze, Shota Independent Kutaisi 59
43 Kharatishvili, Ioseb Citizens Kvareli 16
44 Kapanadze, David Citizens Lagodekhi 15
45 Menabde, Otar Industrialists Lanchkhuti 61
46 Gazdeliani, Tengiz Citizens Lentekhi 46
47 Vakhtangashvili, Guram Independent Liakhvi 85
48 Suleimanov, Azer Citizens Marneuli 22
  see note   Martvili 65
49 Pirveli, Levan Independent Mestia 47
50 Shamanauri, Armaz Citizens Mtskheta 27
51 Mkoian, Enzel Independent Ninotsminda 41
52 Nodarishvili, Revaz Citizens Oni 43
53 Chkhaidze, Avtandil Citizens Ozurgeti 60
54 Beraia, Petre Citizens Poti 70
55 Tkeshelashvili, Merab Citizens Rustavi 30
56 Khurtsidze, Teimuraz Citizens Sachkhere 50
57 Pavliashvili, Solomon Citizens Sagarejo 11
58 Gamrekelidze, Mikheil Independent Samtredia 54
59 Gadelia, Demur Citizens Senaki 64
60 Gogitidze, Anzor Revival Shuakhevi 82
61 Pirashvili, Rezo Citizens Sighnaghi 13
62 Betsiashvili, Giorgi Citizens Telavi 17
63 Butskhrikidze, Bezhan Revival Terjola 49
64 Bezhuashvili, David Citizens Tetritskaro 26
65 Mechiauri, Tamaz Labour Tianeti 19
66 Kipiani, Revaz Citizens Tkibuli 57
67 Mushkudiani, Karlo Independent Tsageri 45
68 Chanturia, Valeri Citizens Tsalenjikha 68
69 Khchoian, Iurk Independent Tsalka 25
70 Lortkipanidze, Roza Citizens Tskaltubo 58
71 Tkeshelashvili, Melor Independent Vani 53
72 Kovziridze, David Revival Zestaphoni 51
73 Jgushia, Tengiz Revival Zugdidi 67
  Note: The single-mandate elections in the Keda and Martvili constituencies were eventually cancelled and repeat elections were scheduled after the presidential elections of 2000.4OSCE (2000), p28 Arsen Mgeladze (Revival) and Fridon Injia (Labour) were subsequently elected in by-elections in Fall 2000, which brought the total number of MPs to 237, above the constitutional limit. The OSCE reported this possibility in the election observation report as a legal conflict.
Abkhazian representatives elected in 1992
74 Baramidze, Malkhaz      
75 Gvazava, Elguja      
76 Jikia, Alexandre      
77 Kakubava, Boris      
78 Kalandia, Geno      
79 Kolbaia, Vakhtang      
80 Lominadze, Givi      
81 Marshania, Ada      
82 Patsatsia, Germane      
83 Penderava, Arnold      
84 Sajaia, Jemal      
85 Tsotsonava, Anzor      
Sources: Parliament Resolution Doc No.3,5Legal Herald of Georgia, Doc No.3 Declaration of authority of the members of the Parliament of Georgia, 20 November 1999. Doc No.21/1999,6Legal Herald of Georgia, Doc No.21/1999 Single-mandate constituencies (1999). and Parliament website.7Parliament of Georgia, members of the 5th Convocation.

Note: in all eight constituencies of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia the elections could not take place. These were: Sukhumi City (#71), Gagra (#72), Gali (#73), Gudauta (#74), Gulripshi (#75), Ochamchire (#76), Sukhumi district (#77) and Tkvarcheli (#78). Also in the South Ossetian districts Tskhinvali City (#42) and Java (#34) the elections could not take place. The mandates of twelve Abkhazian MPs elected in 1992 were automatically extended.

 

References and footnotes

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