1995 Elections Parliament of Georgia

The elections for the 4th Convocation of the Parliament of Georgia took place on 5 and 19 November 1995, simultaneously with the presidential elections. They were the first elections under the new constitution that was adopted in September 1995. The parliamentary elections were won by the Citizens Union of Georgia (CUG) of the acting head of state Eduard Shevardnadze, which received 23.7% of the proportional vote. Shevardnadze won the Presidency, after having been acting head of state since 1992. 

The Citizens Union won 108 out of 235 seats in parliament, remaining short of a majority. Only two other parties managed to pass the 5% threshold while a handful of others won seats through single-mandate constituencies. More than 50 parties and election blocs participated in the elections, scattering the vote.

 

Elections

The elections were scheduled to take place on 5 November 1995. A second round run-off elections in single-mandate constituencies was scheduled for 19 November 1995, when none of the candidates in a constituency would have passed the one-third threshold. The elections could not take place in Abkhazia and parts of South Ossetia, as these areas were outside of Georgian control due to unresolved conflicts. Extra election days were called for 24 November and 3 December 1995 to resolve cancelled results in some precincts.

Electoral system

According to the Georgian law the parliament had a size of 235 deputies. These were elected through a mixed electoral system in which 150 deputies were elected through proportional representation according to party lists and 85 deputies were to be elected through single-mandate constituencies. The constituencies were determined according to the administrative districts (raioni) of Georgia, with capital Tbilisi was divided into ten constituencies, according to its local administrative subdivision.1Legislative Herald of Georgia, Law for the election of the Parliament of Georgia, No.790, (9 September 1995), article 1.2. For the proportional representation a 5% threshold was maintained. To determine whether a party reached the electoral threshold, the percentage was calculated over all cast votes, including the invalid ones.

For the single-mandate districts a 33% threshold (one-third) was applied for winning the district in the first round. A second round was to be held when none of the candidates passed the one-third vote share. The single-mandate constituencies ranged in size from 4,000 to 135,000 registered voters, causing an unequal vote weight, as the OSCE reported in 1999. This disparity was only fixed prior the 2016 election.

Eight seats of the parliament were reserved for single-mandate constituencies in Abkhazia. Since these districts could not participate in the elections, the law stipulated that the mandates of the MPs elected in 1992 from Abkhazia were automatically extended.2Legislative Herald of Georgia, 1995, article 2a. This concerned in total twelve MPs, including four who elected through party lists.3Darrell Slider, “Recent Elections in Georgia: At Long Last, Stability?” (pdf), Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, 8, no. 4 (Fall 2000): p519. The four party-list mandates from Abkhazia were allocated to the proportional part of the parliament, meaning that 146 proportional seats were effectively divided by the elections.

Parties

Initially, 54 parties and electoral blocs applied to the Central Election Commission to participate in the elections,4CEC, Electoral History of Georgia 1990-2018 (pdf), (2020): p81 but after one party was removed, a total of 45 parties and eight blocs were on the ballot.5iVote, History of parliamentary elections, (2013), accessed December 2022.

Results

The Citizens Union of acting head of state and presidential candidate Eduard Shevardnadze won the elections, obtaining 108 of 235 seats, short of a majority. The party received 23.7% of the national votes. Only tow other parties cleared the 5% threshold, the National Democratic Party (8%) and the Adjara based All-Georgian Union for Revival (6.8%) led by Adjarian leader Aslan Abashidze. This meant that more than 61% of the proportional votes were not represented in Parliament. Eight parties that didn’t pass the threshold were able to win some single-mandate districts, thus creating a plural parliament.

Two seats remained vacant: in the South Ossetian single-mandate constituencies of Tskhinvali and Java the elections could not be performed. The elections were cancelled in the Rustavi constituency as less than 50% of the registered voters cast their vote. The repeat election was held in June 1996.6CEC (2020), p87

The parties that polled around 4% protested against the results because of the unusually high amount of annulled ballots. They suspected fraud to prevent them clearing the 5% threshold.7CEC (2020), p92

Party Partylist Vote Seats
Votes % Prop. District Total +/-
Citizens Union of Georgia 504,586 23.71 90 18 108 New
National Democratic Party 169,218 7.95 31 3 34 +20
All-Georgian Union for Revival 145,626 6.84 25 6 31 New
United Communist Party and Social Democrats 95,506 4.77 0 0 0  
Union of Georgian Traditionalists 89,752 4.22 0 3 3 -5
21st Century-Konstantin Gamsakhurdia Society-United Georgia 88,405 4.15 0 0 0  
Socialist Party of Georgia 80,747 3.79 0 4 4 New
Georgian Union of Reformers–National Concord 61,424 2.89 0 2 2 New
Merab Kostava Society 49,829 2.34 0 0 0  
Stalin Communist Party 46,174 2.17 0 0 0  
Political Union Support 45,747 2.15 0 3 3 New
Abkhazia – My Home 44.191 2.08 0 0 0  
Republican Party of Georgia 35,051 1.65 0 1 1 -9
“Progress” bloc 29,189 1.37 0 4 4 New
Union for Law-Governed State8Transformed into Georgian Labour Party in 1995 19,675 0.92 0 1 1 +1
All-Georgian Political Organization “Lemi” 8,722 0.41 0 1 1 New
Other parties and blocs937 other parties and election blocs on the ballot received a total of 489,401 votes (or 23.1%) 489,401 23.12 0 0 0  
Independents   29 29  
Abkhazian deputies10Automatically extended mandate.   4 8 12  
Vacant11Tskhinvali and Java constituencies (South Ossetia).   2 2  
Total 2,003,243 94.63 150 85 235  
Invalid/blank votes 113,588 5.37  
Total cast votes 2,116,83112The CEC has recorded a total of 2,127,946 cast votes, while 2,116,831 is arithmetically correct. 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 3,121,075 67.8213Based on the CEC recorded cast votes (2,127,946) the turnout would be 68.18%.
Sources: CEC,14CEC (2020): p89, 91 iVote,15iVote, (2013). Nohlen.16Nohlen, Dieter, Natalie Kuchinka‐Lančava, and Florian Grotz. “Georgia” Chapter in “Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume I: Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia“: p371–406. Oxford University Press, 2001.

Election observation

The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly sent a limited delegation to observe the elections, visiting just over 50 polling stations in parts of South Ossetia, Kakheti and the capital Tbilisi.17OSCE PA, Georgia Parliamentary Elections 5 November 1995 – Press Release (pdf), (1995). In their final report they noted the elections “generally proceeded without violence or major mishap”, which it stated “is exceptional given the republic’s recent civil war, and on-going ethic turmoil”.18OSCE PA, Report on Parliamentary Elections in Republic of Georgia 5 November 1995 (pdf), (1 February 1996). Generally “proper procedures were observed by the delegation”. It noted an imbalance in media coverage, specifically excessive airtime for the Head of State Shevardnadze who campaigned for the presidency at the same time. Arrest and detention of some opposition members reduced opposition voices in the campaign period. 

The American National Democratic Institute reported in a pre-election assessment the campaign was “peaceful, without accusations of systematic fraud or corruption”. It observed some parties took a more national (less Tbilisi-centered) approach to campaigning and shuttled their leaders throughout the country. The Citizens Union of Shevardnadze and led by Zurab Zhvania organized a series of concerts. It highlighted the law guaranteed equal media time, both in print and television. In conclusion it stated the elections were a major step forward on the road to democratization. It identified “lack of finances and poor communication pose a greater threat to the conduct of the elections than the prospect of systematic fraud”, without excluding the latter in pockets of local corruption in certain areas.19NDI, Pre-election Report – The November 1995 Presidential and on Parliamentary Elections – Republic of Georgia (pdf), (30 October 1995).

Appendix

1. Participating parties and electoral blocs

The complete list of all participating parties and electoral blocs with the votes in the national constituency.

Party / Bloc and list number Votes %
1 Union of Justice of Georgia 22,190 1.04
2 All-Georgian Political Organization “Lemi” 8.722 0.41
3 National Independence Party of Georgia 39,788 1.87
4 Bloc “United Communist Party of Georgia and Social Democrats”
  • United Communist Party of Georgia
  • Social Democratic Party of Georgia
95.506 4.49
5 Democratic Party 37,643 1.77
6 All-Georgian Union for Revival 145,626 6.84
7 Abkhazia – My Home 44.191 2.08
8 Party “Fatherland” 8,561 0.40
9 Women’s Protection Union 20,384 0.96
10 Bloc “Christian Democracy – European Choice”
  • People’s Party of Georgia
  • Christian Democratic Union of Georgia
8,607 0.40
11 Progressive Party of Georgia 5,673 0.27
12 Socialist Party of Georgia 80,747 3.79
13 Peace and Freedom (Afghan) Union of All-Georgia 43,017 2.02
14 New Georgia 14,030 0.66
15 Communist Party of Georgia 44,117 2.07
16 Intellectuals League of Georgia 4,746 0.22
17 Freedom Party of Georgia 8,188 0.39
18 Christian Democratic Party of Georgia 5,854 0.28
19 Agrarian Union of Georgia 7,420 0.35
20 Merab Kostava Society 49,829 2.34
21 Party for Social Protection of the Population 15,898 0.75
22 Bloc “Zviadi’s Way – Voice of Nation”
  • Union of Recovery of Justice “Voice of the Nation”
  • Renewal Party of Georgia
25,213 1.18
23 “National Dasi” 4,523 0.21
24 Georgian League for Economic and Social Progress-Bourgeois Democratic Party 5,611 0.26
25 Liberal Democratic National Party 5,515 0.26
26 National Democratic Party 169,218 7.95
27 Stalin Communist Part 46,174 2.17
28 All-Georgian Union of Traditional Families 4,791 0.23
29 “Democratic Georgia”1Removed from elections
30 Political Organization “Fatherland” 5,729 0.27
31 Political Movement of Georgia “Fatherland, Language, Faith” 4,339 0.20
32 Union of God’s Children 13,661 0.64
33 Party of Nations’ Friendship and Justice 6,412 0.30
34 Political Organization “Trade Unions to the Elections” 6,969 0.33
35 “Shield of the Motherland” Party 3,807 0.18
36 Conservative (Monarchist) Party of Georgia 3,743 0.18
37 Agrarian Party of Georgia 6,095 0.29
38 Bloc Economic Revival – the Yellows
  • Constitutional-Democratic Party
  • Progressive-Democratic Party
6,564 0.31
39 Ilia Chavchavadze Society 15,510 0.73
40 Liberal-Conservative Party of Georgia 7,123 0.33
41 Political Union “Support” 45,747 2.15
42 Political Union of Citizens “Georgia’s Women for Elections” 12,865 0.60
43 Party for National Unity and Social Justice of Georgia 5,999 0.28
44 Union for Law-Governed State 19,675 0.92
45 Citizen’s Union of Georgia 504,586 23.71
46 Bloc “21st Century-Konstantin Gamsakhurdia Society-United Georgia”
  • National-Political Movement “Heart of Georgia”
  • Konstantine Gamsakhurdia Society
88,405 4.15
47 Political Movement “Georgia’s Future” 15,316 0.72
48 Society “Elections” 3,825 0.18
49 Bloc “Progress”
  • Democratic Union of Georgia
  • Political Union – Young Democrats’ Union “Our Choice”
  • Political Union “Georgian Owners”
  • Election Union “Tbilisi”
29,189 1.37
50 Union of Georgian Traditionalists 89,752 4.22
51 Bloc “Georgian Union of Reformers” – “National Consent”
  • Democratic Union of Georgia
  • Union of Sportsmen of Georgia
  • Political Union of Citizens “Kolkheti”
61,424 2.89
52 Republican Party of Georgia 35,051 1.65
53 “Union of Revival of Family of Georgia” 7,141 0.34
54 Bloc “For Life”
  • Movement of Georgia’s Citizens “For Life”
  • Union of Georgian Mountaineers
32,534 1.53
Total 2,003,243 93.87
Invalid/blank votes 113,588 5.37
Total cast votes 2,116,831 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 3,121,075 68.18
Source: CEC2CEC, Electoral History of Georgia 1990-2018: 113-121
2. Elected members of Parliament

146 Members of parliament were elected through proportional representation via the party-lists in the national constituency. 75 members were elected by single-mandate constituencies and 12 Abkhazian mandates were automatically extended, four of which were allotted to the proportional part of parliament. In two South Ossetian districts (Tskhinvali city and Java) elections were not held, resulting in two vacant seats.

The following table gives all MPs who were confirmed at the inauguration on 25 November 1995, or in December 1995 due to repeat single-mandate elections. Note: this list is a snapshot only. Due to subsequent early terminations of mandates, either through the party-list or single-mandate by-elections, various changes occurred which have not been reflected in this list. Furthermore, for not all elected single-mandate MPs it was possible to confirm whether they ran as independent or through one of the parties, leaving the party field in the table empty.

National constituency party-list MPs
  MP Party-list  
1 Abzianidze, Badri Citizens Union of Georgia (90)
2 Adamashvili, Guram
3 Adamia, Revaz
4 Ajiashvili, Simon
5 Alavidze, Levan
6 Akubardia, Tamaz
7 Amaghlobeli, Nodar
8 Amirkhanashvili, Koba
9 Andriadze, Teimuraz
10 Baliashvili, Ivane
11 Bakirov, Ramiz
12 Bibileishvili, Yuri
13 Bogomolov, Igor
14 Burjanadze, Nino
15 Chachua, Levan
16 Chanishvili, Nino (Nani)
17 Charkviani, Jansugh
18 Chekurishvili, Paata
19 Chikhradze, Pikria
20 Chikvanaya, Leonide (Levan)
21 Chitaia, Kakha
22 Chkuaseli, Grigol
23 Darchia, Mamia
24 Davitashvili, Koba
25 Dolidze, Rostom
26 Endeladze, Giorgi
27 Gachechiladze, Giorgi
28 Gamkrelidze, Tamaz
29 Gegenava, Hamlet
30 Geladze, Avtandil
31 Ghoghoberidze, Lana
32 Gigineishvili, Givi
33 Gigineishvili, Manana
34 Goliashvili, Ilia
35 Gunava, Bezhan
36 Huseinov, Idaiat
37 Jackeli, Giorgi
38 Javakhishvili, Alexander
39 Jayan, Nodar
40 Jgushia, Tengiz
41 Jibladze, Alexander
42 Kalandadze, Ilia
43 Kandelaki, Zaza
44 Kekua, Igor
45 Kharatishvili, Ioseb
46 Khazaradze, Vitali
47 Kheviashvili, Giorgi
48 Khoperia, Nino (Khatuna)
49 Khoridze, Zurab
50 Khurtsilava, Nestor (Mamuka)
51 Kirtadze, Nestan
52 Kokoev, Konstantin
53 Kopaleishvili, Teimuraz
54 Kusiani, Roman
55 Kvaratskhelia, Vladimer
56 Kvinikadze, Vakhtang
57 Lagvilava, Besik
58 Lortkipanidze, Grigol (Giga)
59 Lortkipanidze, Vazha
60 Lortkipanidze, Roza
61 Machavariani, Mikheil
62 Makharadze, Malkhaz
63 Mgaloblishvili, Konstantine
64 Miminoshvili, Roman
65 Mindeli, Lasha
66 Mirianashvili, Mariam
67 Molodini, Marina
68 Muradian, Genrikh
69 Neimatov, Mugadas
70 Novruzov, Isaac
71 Noghaideli, Zurab
72 Onian, Tengiz
73 Onofrishvili, Davit
74 Paghava, Nodar
75 Raiki, Mame
76 Saakashvili, Mikheil
77 Sakvarelidze, Ramaz
78 Shaishmelashvili, Giorgi
79 Shengelaia, Eldar
80 Shugharov, Givi
81 Sopromadze, Zaza
82 Sujashvili, Koba
83 Svanidze, Jemal
84 Takidze, Amiran
85 Tevdoradze, Elene
86 Tkeshelashvili, David
87 Tsikhistavi, Gia
88 Tsiklauri, Mevlud
89 Tskitishvili, Zurab
90 Zhvania Zurab
91 Chakhvadze, Guram National Democratic Party (31)
92 Cheishvili, Davit
93 Chelidze, Davit
94 Chkhaidze, Merab
95 Chkhaidze, Shalva
96 Gadelia, Davit
97 Giorgadze, Ivane
98 Gokadze, Davit
99 Gogniashvili, Giorgi
100 Jibuti, Mikhail
101 Jikia, Kakha
102 Jugeli, Besik
103 Kobakhidze, Giorgi
104 Kokhreidze, Jambul (Jaba)
105 Khukhunaishvili, Vano
106 Khukhunashvili, Tamaz
107 Kvatchantiradze, Gennady (Gela)
108 Mchedlidze, Gizo (Gia)
109 Melkade, Otar
110 Merebashvili, Irakli
111 Pataridze, Zaza
112 Sakvarelidze, Revaz
113 Sarishvili-Chanturia, Irina
114 Sharmanashvili, Tengiz
115 Shatirishvili, Ivane (Nukri)
116 Shavtvaladze, Tamaz
117 Shengelia, Levan
118 Skhirtladze, Rostom
119 Takniashvili, Jumber
120 Talakhadze, Vakhtang
121 Tsuntskaladze, Soso
122 Abashidze, Aslan Revival of Georgia (25)
123 Abashidze, David
124 Akhvlediani Armaz
125 Beridze, Jemal
126 Bolkvadze, Tamaz
127 Diasamidze, Revaz
128 Gogitze, Jemal
129 Japaridze, Shota
130 Jijavadze, Abdul
131 Kakhidze, Neli
132 Kezherashvili, Otar
133 Khalvashi, Friedon
134 Kheladze, Giorgi
135 Khozrevanidze, Noah
136 Mazmanidi, Nikoloz
137 Megrelidze, Jemal
138 Paghava, Alexander
139 Pochvalinsky, Eduard
140 Shamiladze, Vakhtang
141 Sharadze, Guram
142 Shervashidze, Murman
143 Taramidze, Guram
144 Topuridze, Lira
145 Tsintskiladze, Zurab
146 Turmanidze, Guram
Japaridze, Davit (?)3There is a mystery to the number of Revival MPs that started their mandate at the inaugural date. These were 26 MPs, while 25 got elected according to records. This is not due to a last-minute transfer, as the other party-list numbers match (130, 31), creating a puzzle which entry is wrong.
Single-mandate constituencies
  MP Party Constituency #
1 Areshidze, Mumuka   Tbilisi – Mtatsminda 1
2 Batiashvili, Irakli   Tbilisi – Vake 2
3 Khutsishvili, Ilia   Tbilisi – Saburtalo 3
4 Daushvili, Tamaz Traditionalists Tbilisi – Krtsani 4
5 Goguadze, Vakhtang Citizens Tbilisi – Isani 5
6 Cherkezishvili, Eldar NDP Tbilisi – Samgori 6
7 Rcheulishvili, Vakhtang Socialists Tbilisi – Chugureti 7
8 Baramidze, Giorgi Citizens Tbilisi – Didube 8
9 Machaidze, Manuchar Reformers Tbilisi – Nadzaladevi 9
10 Sakvarelidze, Avtandil   Tbilisi – Gldani 10
11 Tediashvili, Levan Citizens Sagarejo 11
12 Machavariani, Marcel   Gurjaani 12
13 Kochlamazashvili, Nodar   Sighnaghi 13
14 Zubadalashvili, Laerti   Dedoplistskaro 14
15 Tsintsadze, Amiran   Lagodekhi 15
16 Zautashvili, Givi   Kvareli 16
17 Abashidze, Dali Citizens Telavi 17
18 Akhmateli, Zurab   Akhmeta 18
19 Mechiauri, Tamaz   Tianeti 19
20 Kashakashvili, Guram Citizens Rustavi 20
21 Mamaladze, Nugar Citizens Gardabani 21
22 Shubitidze, Amiran   Marneuli 22
23 Devnozashvili, Zakaria Citizens Bolnisi 23
24 Tatuashvili, Alexi Citizens Dmanisi 24
25 Aidinov Vitali Citizens Tsalka 25
26 Dalakishvili, Roman Citizens Tetritskaro 26
27 Zeikidze, Davit   Mtskheta 27
28 Natelashvili, Shalva Labour Party Dusheti 28
29 Marsagishvili, Savel   Kazbegi 29
30 Berianidze, Ramaz NDP Kaspi 30
31 Gvritishvili, Yuri   Akhalgori 31
32 Lazarashvili, Giorgi Citizens Gori 32
33 Thinadze, Tamaz Citizens Kareli 33
Vacant Java 34
34 Osadze, Mikheil   Khashuri 35
35 Karseladze, Vladimer Citizens Borjomi 36
36 Natenadze, Gocha   Akhaltsikhe 37
37 Petashvili, Nodar   Adigeni 38
38 Zazadze, Nodar   Aspindza 39
39 Raisian, Melik Citizens Akhalkalaki 40
40 Bdoian, Mels Citizens Ninotsminda 41
Vacant Tskhinvali city 42
41 Bichasvili, Giorgi   Oni 43
42 Chikhradze, Yuri   Ambrolauri 44
43 Giorgobiani, Valery Reformers Tsageri 45
44 Khabuliani, Dilar   Lentekhi 46
45 Chelidze, Iveri LEMI Mestia 47
46 Navadze, Nugzar   Kharagauli 48
47 Butskhrikidze, Bezhan   Terjola 49
48 Khurtsidze, Teimuraz   Sachkhere 50
49 Chkheidze, Zurab Citizens Zestaphoni 51
50 Nozadze, Gayoz   Baghdadi 52
51 Baziar, Onar Citizens Vani 53
52 Chachua, Tariel   Samtredia 54
53 Sanodze, Nikoloz NDP Khoni 55
54 Motsradze, Tengiz Socialists Chiatura 56
55 Chikaberidze, Tengiz Citizens Tkibuli 57
56 Shengelia, Otar Citizens Tskaltubo 58
57 Barkaia, Constantine   Kutaisi 59
58 Sioridze, Zaza   Ozurgeti 60
59 Kvatchadze, Roman   Lanchkhuti 61
60 Zghenti, Davit Citizens Chokhatauri 62
61 Kacharava, Gurji   Abasha 63
62 Gadelia, Demur   Senaki 64
63 Injia, Davit   Martvili 65
64 Bukia, Goderdzi   Khobi 66
65 Patsatsia, Otar   Zugdidi 67
66 Pipia, Tornike   Tsalenjikha 68
67 Tkebuchava, Avtandil   Chkhorotsku 69
68 Beraia, Petre   Poti 70
Constituencies in Abkhazia (#71 – #78)
69 Tsivadze, Givi Revival Batumi 79
70 Surmanidze, Edward Revival Keda 80
71 Komakhidze, Givi Revival Kobuleti 81
72 Kidzinidze, Levan Revival Shuakhevi 82
73 Abashidze, Vakhtang Revival Khelvachauri 83
74 Vanadze, Alexander Revival Khulo 84
75 Jojishvili, Giorgi   Liakhvi 85
  Note:
Abkhazian representatives elected in 1992
1 Baramidze, Malkhaz      
2 Gvazava, Elguja      
3 Jikia, Alexandre      
4 Kakubava, Boris      
5 Kalandia, Geno      
6 Kolbaia, Vakhtang      
7 Lominadze, Givi      
8 Marshania, Ada      
9 Patsatsia, Germane      
10 Penderava, Arnold      
11 Sajaia, Jemal      
12 Tsotsonava, Anzor      
Sources: Parliament website.4Parliament of Georgia, members of the 4th Convocation.

Note: in all eight constituencies of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia the elections could not take place. These were: Sukhumi City (#71), Gagra (#72), Gali (#73), Gudauta (#74), Gulripshi (#75), Ochamchire (#76), Sukhumi district (#77) and Tkvarcheli (#78). Also in the South Ossetian districts Tskhinvali City (#42) and Java (#34) the elections could not take place. The mandates of twelve Abkhazian MPs elected in 1992 were automatically extended.

 

References and footnotes

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